# Water and Sediment Quality Modeling and Criteria Materials

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This is a collection of technical reports related to water and sediment quality modeling and criteria development. They are part of the gray literature that support and document many of the developments in water quality modeling and water quality and sediment quality criteria development. A number of reports are more tangentially related, but have proved to be useful in areas of research that are related.

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Item Double-Mass Curves(1960) Searcy, James K.; Hardison, Clayton H.The double- mass curve is used to check the consistency of many kinds of hydrologic data by comparing date for a single station with that of a pattern composed of the data from several other stations in the area. The double-mass curve can be used to adjust inconsistent precipitation data. The graph of the cumulative data of one variable versus the cumulative data of a related variable is a straight line so long as the relation between the variables is a fixed ratio. Breaks in the double-mass curve of such variables are caused by changes in the relation between the variables. These changes may be due to changes in the method of data collection or to physical changes that affect the relation. Applications of the double-mass curve to precipitation, streamflow, and sediment data, and to precipitation-runoff relations are described . A statistical test for significance of an apparent break in the slope of the double-mass curve is described by an example. Poor correlation between the variables can prevent detection of inconsistencies in a record, but an increase in the length of record tends to offset the effect of poor correlation. The residual-mass, curve which is a modification of the double-mass curve, magnifies imperceptible breaks in the double-mass curve for detailed study. Of the several methods of fitting a smooth curve to cyclic or periodic data, the moving-are method and the double-integration method deserve greater, use in hydrology. Both methods are described in the manual. The moving-arc method has general applicability, and the double integration methods is useful in fitting a curve to cycles of sinusoidal form.Item A Study of the Pollution and Natural Purification of the Ohio River(U.S. Department of Health, Education, & Welfare, 1958) Streeter, H.W.; Phelps, Earle B.Item Reservoirs in the United States(U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966) Martin, R.O.R; Hanson, Ronald L.This report summarized the storage capacities and related data of reservoirs and controlled natural lakes for the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Data are given for all storage facilities having a usable capacity of 5,000 acre-feet or more and completed or under construction as of Jan. 1963. A descriptive list of reservoirs in the United States completed as of Jan. 1, 1947, was first published (Geol. Survey Circular 23) in March 1948. In 1956 Water-Supply Paper 1360-A, "Reservoirs in the United States," by N.O. Thomas and G.E. Harbeck Jr., updated this listing and included lists of reservoirs completed or under construction as of Jan. 1, 1954. Some of the data shown for reservoirs constructed before 1954 may have been corrected herein on the basis of the latest available reservoir survey. This report list 1562 reservoirs and lakes; their useable storage totals 359,360,000 acre-feet, and the corresponding surface area in 14,831,000 acres.Item Biological Implication of Metals in the Environment(Technical Information Center Energy Research and Development Administration, 1977) Drucker, HarveyItem Flow-Duration Curves(1960) Searcy, James K.The flow-duration curve is a cumulative curve that shows the percent of time specified discharges were equaled or exceeded during a given period. It combines in one curve the flow characteristics of a stream throughout the range of discharge, without regard to the sequence of occurrence. If the period upon which the curve is based represents the long-term flow of a stream, the curve may be used to predict the distribution of future flows for waterpower, water-supply, and pollution studies. This report shows that difference in geology affect the low-flow ends of flow-duration curves of streams in adjacent basins. Thus, duration curves are useful in appraising the geologic characteristics of drainage basins. A method for adjusting flow-duration curves of short periods to represent long-term conditions is presented. The adjustment is made by correlating the records of a short-term station with those of a long-term station.Item Graphical Correlation Of Gaging-Station Records(1960) Searcy, James K.A gaging-station record is a sample of the rate of flow of a stream at a given site. This sample can be used to estimate the magnitude and distribution of future flows if the record is long enough to be representative of the long-term flow of the stream. The reliability of a short-term record for estimating future flow characteristics can be improved through correlation with a long-term record. Correlation can be either numerical or graphical, but graphical correlation of gaging-station records has several advantages. The graphical correlation methods is described in a step-by-step procedure with an illustrative problem of simple correlation, illustrative problems of three examples of multiple correlation-removing seasonal effect-and two examples of correlation of one record with two other records. Except in the problem on removal of seasonal effect, the same group of stations is used in the illustrative problems. The purpose of the problems is to illustrate the method-not to show the improvement that can result from multiple correlation as compared with simple correlation. Hydrologic factors determine whether a usable relation exists between gaging-station records. Statistics is only a tool for evaluating and using an existing relation ,and the investigator must be guided by knowledge of hydrology.Item Storage And Flood Routing(1960) Carter, R. W.; Godfrey, R. G.The basic equations used in flood routing are developed from the law of continuity. In each method the assumptions are discussed to enable the user to select an appropriate technique. In the stage-storage method the storage is related to the mean gage height in the reach under consideration. In the discharge-storage method the storage is determined from weighted values of inflow and outflow discharge. In the reservoir-storage method the storage is considered as a function of outflow discharge alone. A detailed example is given for each method to illustrate that particular technique.Item General Introduction And Hydrologic Definitions(1960) Langbein, W.B.; Iseri, Kathleen T.Item Symposium on Diffusion in Oceans and Fresh Waters(Lamont Geological Observatory of Columbia University Palisades, New York, 1965-12) Ichiye, TakashiItem Flood-Frequency Analyses Manual of Hydrology: Part 3 Flood Flow Techniques(U.S. Government Printing Office, 1960) Allen, Herbert E.This report describes the method used by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine the magnitude and frequency of momentary peak discharges at any place on a stream, whether a gaging-station record is available or not. The method is applicable to a region of any size, as a river basin or a State, so long as the region is hydrologically homogeneous. The analysis provides two curves. The first expresses the flood discharge time relation, showing variation of peak discharge, expressed as a ratio to the mean annual flood, with recurrence interval. The second relates the mean annual flood to the size of drainage area alone, or to the size area and other significant basin characteristics.Item Limnological Systems Analysis(1973-03) Hydroscience Inc. StaffItem Hydrologic Optics. Volume 5. Properties(Honolulu : U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Research Laboratories, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, 1976) Preisendorfer, R.W.In the 5th volume in a set of six volumes of the text on hydrologic optics major emphasis is on the optical properties of the sea that govern the penetration of natural light into its depts.. The stratified light field, so prevalent in oceanography and limnology is studied and the special and interesting behavior of the light field and its attendant apparent optical properties at both small and great depths in the sea are explored in detail. Subjects treated in this volume are: models for irradiance fields; general theory of optical properties; optical properties at extreme depths; and the universal radiative transport equation. (OEIS)Item Oxygenation of Ferrous Iron(U.S Government Printing Office, 1970-06) Harvard University staffItem Hydrologic Optics. Volume 3. Solutions(Honolulu : U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Research Laboratories, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, 1976) Preisendorfer, R.W.This third volume of a set of six volumes of a text on hydrologic optics deals with the theory of light fields and solutions of the equation of transfer. Detailed treatment is given on the subjects of: radiance in transparent media; radiance in absorbing media; Koschmieder’s equation for radiance; canonical representation of polarized radiance; abstract versions of canonical equations; the n-ary radiometric concepts; equation of transfer for n-ary radiant energy; solutions for the n-ary energy equations; properties of time depended n-ary radiant energy fields; dimension-less forms of n-ary radiant energy fields; global approximations of general, radiance fields; light storage phenomena; bases of the spherical harmonic method; abstract spherical harmonic method; classical spherical harmonic method; three approaches to diffusion theory and solutions of the classical and exact diffusion equations.Item Hydrologic Optics. Volume 1. Introduction(Honolulu : U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Research Laboratories, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, 1976) Preisendorfer, R.W.The first chapter in Volume I in a series of six volumes may serve as a self-contained 'short course' on hydrologic optics. Particular attention is directed toward the three simple models for light fields in natural waters. These models constitute the minimal theoretical tools for the field of hydrologic optics. Attention is also directed to the section dealing with practical nomographs for predicting the range of visibility available to underwater swimmers in various natural hydrosols such as harbors, lakes and seas. Also of general interest are the many samples of magnitudes of light fields and optical constants found in natural waters. Chapter 2 is concerned with the scientific language of radiative transfer: geometrical radiometry and provides the radiometric concepts and formulations needed in the applications of the interaction principle to hydrologic optics. (OEIS)Item Hydrologic Optics. Volume 2. FoundationsThis second volume of a set of six volumes of the text on hydrologic optics deals with foundations: radiometric and photometric concepts and the interaction principle. Detailed treatment is given on: radiant flux; the meaning and fundamental geometric properties of radiant flux; irradiance and radiant emittance; radiance; an invariance property of radiance; scalar irradiance, radiant energy, and related concepts; vector irradiance; radiant intensity; polarized radiance; transition from radiometry to photometry; generalized photometries; the interaction principle; reflectance and transmittance operators for surfaces; applications to plane surfaces; applications to curved surfaces; reflectance and transmittance operators for plane-parallel media; applications to plane-parallel media; interaction operators for general spaces; applications to general spaces; derivation of the beam transmittance function; derivation of the volume attenuation function; derivation of path radiance and path function; derivation of apparent-radiance equation; derivation of volume scattering function; equation of transfer for radiance; integral structure of the interaction operators and summary of the interaction method. (OEIS)Item Hydrologic Optics. Volume 4. ImbeddingsThe 4th volume of a set of six volumes of the text on hydrologic optics provides detailed treatment on invariant imbedding techniques for light fields. Subjects presented are: differential equations governing the steady state R and T operators; differential equations governing the time dependent R and T operators; algebraic and analytic properties of the R and T operators; algebraic properties of the invariant imbedding operators ; analytic properties of the invariant imbedding operator special solution procedures for R(a,b) and T(a,b)in plane parallel media; method of modules for deep homogeneous media; method of semigroups for deep homogeneous media; method of groups for deep homogeneous media; method of groups for general optical media; homogeneity, isotropy and related properties of optical media; functional relations for media with internal sources; and invariant imbedding and integral transform techniques. (OEIS)Item North American Project -- A Study Of U.S. Water Bodies(1977-07) Seyb, Les; Randolph, KarenItem Phytoplankton-Environmental Interactions in Reservoirs(1979-04) Lorenzen, Marc W.Item Simulation Modeling of Zooplankton and Benthos in Reservoirs: Documentation and Development(1980-03) Leidy, G.R.; Pioskey, G.RA literature bioengertics review and analysis of published data on zooplankton and menthos bioenergetics form the basis used in this report for the development of stochastic model constructs from the simulation of zooplankton and benthos dynamics in reservoirs. Parameters reviewed and modeled were selected from the mass balance equation: db/dt = b [G (A/G)-R -NPM - PM] where b= biomass (mg carbon), t= time (days), G= consumption of grazing rate (mg carbon*mg carbon^-1*day^-1), R = respiration (mg carbon*mg carbon^-1*day^-1). Mathematical constructs, where appropriate or justified by the available literature, were developed to describe the effects of enviromental components (for example, food, temperature, and oxygen concentration) on rate terms in Equation 1. Frequency distributions of rate coefficients were formed for as many taxonomic or functional categories of aquatic invertebrates as possible. By using carbon units and providing frequency histograms of carbon-nitrogen and carbon-phosphorus ratios, the model can trace the cycling of nitrogen and phosphorus through zooplankton and benthos compartments. An evaluation is presented of strengths and weaknesses in the literature on zooplankton and benthos consumption, assimiliation, respiration, and nonpredatory mortality.