Water and Sediment Quality Modeling and Criteria Materials
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This is a collection of technical reports related to water and sediment quality modeling and criteria development. They are part of the gray literature that support and document many of the developments in water quality modeling and water quality and sediment quality criteria development. A number of reports are more tangentially related, but have proved to be useful in areas of research that are related.
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- ItemEarly Diagenesis And Chemical Mass Transfer In Lake Erie Sediments(1900) Matisoff, Gerald; Fisher, J. Berton; Lick, WilbertVertical profiles of pore water and sediment solids chemistry were obtained from two sites in Lake Erie. Samples were collected using both gravity coring and pore water "peeper" techniques. In general, concentrations of nutrients and toxic metals in sediment solids decreased with increasing depth. Comparison of pore water "peeper data to gravity core data showed that "peeper" data provides higher resolution near the sediment-water interface. Modifications of the present peeper are required to adequately sample easily oxidizable materials (e.g. ammonia, ferrous iron).
- ItemTrace Metal Mineral Equilibria in Lake Erie Sediments(1900) Matisoff, Gerald; Matis, SharonMineral equilibria were examined for the system Cd-Pb, Zn-Fe (II)-CO3- PO4 -H20 in the interstitial waters of the upper meter of Lake Erie sediments. To closely approximate anoxic sediment conditions, extrusion and squeezing were performed under a nitrogen atmosphere shortly after coring. Interstitial water concentrations of ferrous iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and carbonate alkalinity were about a factor of 3-5 greater in the near-shore Ashtabula cores than in the central basin. Pore waters were supersaturated with respect to vivianite (Fe3 (PO4)2 8H20) and siderite (FeC03) which were generally in equilibrium with each other. Cadmium, lead and zinc, however, were under saturated with respect to carbonate and phosphate minerals phases. Metal concentrations were generally greatest in the 10 cm immediately below the sediment-water interface. Calculations showed 90-98 percent of the lead, 20-60 percent of the zinc, and 5 percent of the cadmium to be inorganically complexed. Organic complexation tied up additional metal and may account for the larger total dissolved metal levels in the upper 10 cm of the sediment pore waters. This report was submitted in fulfillment of Contract No. R-803704 by Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio under the sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report covers the period June 15, 1976 to February 28, 1978, and was completed as of December, 1977.
- ItemWater Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP)(1900) DiToro, Dominic; Fitzpatrick, James J.; Thomann, Robert V.A generalized water quality modeling program and a model verification analysis program have been developed that have application to a wide variety of water resource management problems. The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program, WASP, may be applied to one, two, and three-dimensional water bodies, and models may be structured to include linear and non-linear kinetics. Depending upon the modeling framework the user formulates, the user may choose, via input options, to input constant or time-variable transport and kinetic processes, as well as point and non-point waste discharges. The Model Verification Program, MVP, may be used as an indicator of "goodness of fit" or adequacy of the model as a representation of the real world. To date the water quality modeling program has been applied to over twenty water resource management problems. These applications have included one, two and three dimensional water bodies and a number of different physical, chemical and biologica1 modeling frameworks, such as BOD-DO, eutrophication, and toxic substances.
- ItemPollution Of Boundary Waters(1951) International Joint Commission
- ItemA Study of the Pollution and Natural Purification of the Ohio River(U.S. Department of Health, Education, & Welfare, 1958) Streeter, H.W.; Phelps, Earle B.
- ItemA Mathematical Model Of The Human External Respiratory System(Rand Corporation, 1959-09) Dantzig, George B.; DeHaven, James C.; Cooper, Irwin; Johnson, Selmar M.; DeLand, Edward C.; Kanter, Herschel; Sams, Crawford F. M.D.
- ItemFlood-Frequency Analyses Manual of Hydrology: Part 3 Flood Flow Techniques(U.S. Government Printing Office, 1960) Allen, Herbert E.This report describes the method used by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine the magnitude and frequency of momentary peak discharges at any place on a stream, whether a gaging-station record is available or not. The method is applicable to a region of any size, as a river basin or a State, so long as the region is hydrologically homogeneous. The analysis provides two curves. The first expresses the flood discharge time relation, showing variation of peak discharge, expressed as a ratio to the mean annual flood, with recurrence interval. The second relates the mean annual flood to the size of drainage area alone, or to the size area and other significant basin characteristics.
- ItemDouble-Mass Curves(1960) Searcy, James K.; Hardison, Clayton H.The double- mass curve is used to check the consistency of many kinds of hydrologic data by comparing date for a single station with that of a pattern composed of the data from several other stations in the area. The double-mass curve can be used to adjust inconsistent precipitation data. The graph of the cumulative data of one variable versus the cumulative data of a related variable is a straight line so long as the relation between the variables is a fixed ratio. Breaks in the double-mass curve of such variables are caused by changes in the relation between the variables. These changes may be due to changes in the method of data collection or to physical changes that affect the relation. Applications of the double-mass curve to precipitation, streamflow, and sediment data, and to precipitation-runoff relations are described . A statistical test for significance of an apparent break in the slope of the double-mass curve is described by an example. Poor correlation between the variables can prevent detection of inconsistencies in a record, but an increase in the length of record tends to offset the effect of poor correlation. The residual-mass, curve which is a modification of the double-mass curve, magnifies imperceptible breaks in the double-mass curve for detailed study. Of the several methods of fitting a smooth curve to cyclic or periodic data, the moving-are method and the double-integration method deserve greater, use in hydrology. Both methods are described in the manual. The moving-arc method has general applicability, and the double integration methods is useful in fitting a curve to cycles of sinusoidal form.
- ItemStorage And Flood Routing(1960) Carter, R. W.; Godfrey, R. G.The basic equations used in flood routing are developed from the law of continuity. In each method the assumptions are discussed to enable the user to select an appropriate technique. In the stage-storage method the storage is related to the mean gage height in the reach under consideration. In the discharge-storage method the storage is determined from weighted values of inflow and outflow discharge. In the reservoir-storage method the storage is considered as a function of outflow discharge alone. A detailed example is given for each method to illustrate that particular technique.
- ItemGeneral Introduction And Hydrologic Definitions(1960) Langbein, W.B.; Iseri, Kathleen T.
- ItemGraphical Correlation Of Gaging-Station Records(1960) Searcy, James K.A gaging-station record is a sample of the rate of flow of a stream at a given site. This sample can be used to estimate the magnitude and distribution of future flows if the record is long enough to be representative of the long-term flow of the stream. The reliability of a short-term record for estimating future flow characteristics can be improved through correlation with a long-term record. Correlation can be either numerical or graphical, but graphical correlation of gaging-station records has several advantages. The graphical correlation methods is described in a step-by-step procedure with an illustrative problem of simple correlation, illustrative problems of three examples of multiple correlation-removing seasonal effect-and two examples of correlation of one record with two other records. Except in the problem on removal of seasonal effect, the same group of stations is used in the illustrative problems. The purpose of the problems is to illustrate the method-not to show the improvement that can result from multiple correlation as compared with simple correlation. Hydrologic factors determine whether a usable relation exists between gaging-station records. Statistics is only a tool for evaluating and using an existing relation ,and the investigator must be guided by knowledge of hydrology.
- ItemFlow-Duration Curves(1960) Searcy, James K.The flow-duration curve is a cumulative curve that shows the percent of time specified discharges were equaled or exceeded during a given period. It combines in one curve the flow characteristics of a stream throughout the range of discharge, without regard to the sequence of occurrence. If the period upon which the curve is based represents the long-term flow of a stream, the curve may be used to predict the distribution of future flows for waterpower, water-supply, and pollution studies. This report shows that difference in geology affect the low-flow ends of flow-duration curves of streams in adjacent basins. Thus, duration curves are useful in appraising the geologic characteristics of drainage basins. A method for adjusting flow-duration curves of short periods to represent long-term conditions is presented. The adjustment is made by correlating the records of a short-term station with those of a long-term station.
- ItemThe Effect of Chemical & Physical Variables on Reaeration(1960-06) O'Connor, Donald J.
- ItemAnalysis By Migration In The Presence Of Chemical Reaction(Rand Corporation, 1962-06) Shapiro, Norman
- ItemReactions of Hemoglobin and Steady States in the Human Respiratory System: An investigation using Mathematical Models and An Electronic Computer(The RAND Corporation, 1962-12) DeHaven, James C.; DeLand, Edward C.
- ItemConditions For A Homogeneous Mixture To Be Ideal(Rand Corporation, 1963-06) Shapiro, N. Z.
- ItemOn The Behavior Of A Chemical Equilibrium System When Its Free Energy Parameters Are Changed(Rand Corporation, 1964-05) Shapiro, N. Z.
- ItemA Generalized Technique For Eliminating Species In Complex Chemical Equilibrium Calculations(Rand Corporation, 1964-09) Shapiro, N. Z.
- ItemThe Numerical Solution Of The Chemical Equilibrium Problem(Rand Corporation, 1965-01) Clasen, R. J.