Open Access Publications

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Open access publications by faculty, postdocs, and graduate students in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering


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Now showing 1 - 5 of 40
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    Matrix Degradability Contributes to the Development of Salivary Gland Progenitor Cells with Secretory Functions
    (ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2023-07-12) Metkari, Apoorva S.; Fowler, Eric W.; Witt, Robert L.; Jia, Xinqiao
    Synthetic matrices that are cytocompatible, cell adhesive, and cell responsive are needed for the engineering of implantable, secretory salivary gland constructs to treat radiation induced xerostomia or dry mouth. Here, taking advantage of the bioorthogonality of the Michael-type addition reaction, hydrogels with comparable stiffness but varying degrees of degradability (100% degradable, 100DEG; 50% degradable, 50DEG; and nondegradable, 0DEG) by cell-secreted matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were synthesized using thiolated HA (HA-SH), maleimide (MI)-conjugated integrin-binding peptide (RGD-MI), and MI-functionalized peptide cross-linkers that are protease degradable (GIW-bisMI) or nondegradable (GIQ-bisMI). Organized multicellular structures developed readily in all hydrogels from dispersed primary human salivary gland stem cells (hS/PCs). As the matrix became progressively degradable, cells proliferated more readily, and the multicellular structures became larger, less spherical, and more lobular. Immunocytochemical analysis showed positive staining for stem/progenitor cell markers CD44 and keratin 5 (K5) in all three types of cultures and positive staining for the acinar marker α-amylase under 50DEG and 100DEG conditions. Quantitatively at the mRNA level, the expression levels of key stem/progenitor markers KIT, KRT5, and ETV4/5 were significantly increased in the degradable gels as compared to the nondegradable counterparts. Western blot analyses revealed that imparting matrix degradation led to >3.8-fold increase in KIT expression by day 15. The MMP-degradable hydrogels also promoted the development of a secretary phenotype, as evidenced by the upregulation of acinar markers α-amylase (AMY), aquaporin-5 (AQP5), and sodium-potassium chloride cotransporter 1 (SLC12A2). Collectively, we show that cell-mediated matrix remodeling is necessary for the development of regenerative pro-acinar progenitor cells from hS/PCs.
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    Assessment of Directionally Solidified Eutectic Sm–Fe(Co)–Ti Alloys as Permanent Magnet Materials
    (IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2023-05-29) Gabay, Alexander M.; Han, Chaoya; Ni, Chaoying; Hadjipanayis, George C.
    Sm–Fe–Ti and Sm–Fe 0.8 Co 0.2 –Ti alloys were prepared via arc-melting and directionally solidified on a water-cooled copper hearth. The as-solidified alloys featured cells of the Sm(Fe,Co,Ti) 12 –Ti(Fe,Co) 2+δ –(α-Fe) lamellar eutectic. The lamellae of Sm(Fe,Co,Ti) 12 phase with a crystal structure of the ThMn12 type were less than 0.2 μm thick, and had their [001] easy-magnetization directions oriented along the temperature gradient of the solidification. The eutectic microstructure led to an increased coercivity, especially in the Co-added alloys. Below 250 °C, this coercivity was found not to vary much with temperature with a temperature coefficient of -0.18 %/°C. However, the modest absolute values, reaching only 0.7 kOe, are insufficient for utilization of the directionally solidified alloys as anisotropic permanent magnets.
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    Cholesterol-substituted 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT-MA-cholesterol) and Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-MA-cholesterol)
    (Giant, 2023-05-23) Wu, Yuhang; Nagane, Samadhan S.; Baugh, Quintin; Lo, Chun-Yuan; Chhatre, Shrirang S.; Lee, Junghyun; Sitarik, Peter; Kayser, Laure V.; Martin, David C.
    Cholesterol is a rigid, crystalline, non-polar natural substance that exists in animal blood and cell membranes. Some of its derivatives are known to form ordered liquid crystalline mesophases under suitable conditions. In this work, we carefully examined the influence of cholesterol substitution on the characteristics of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT-MA-cholesterol) and its corresponding polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-MA-cholesterol) synthesized by both chemical and electrochemical polymerization. We found evidence for an ordered lamellar (smectic-like) structure in the EDOT-MA-cholesterol monomer by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), and X-ray diffraction techniques. The ordered phase was observed to form on cooling from the isotropic melt at about 80 °C. Due to the insulating and bulky cholesterol side group on the EDOT monomer, we found that there was a maximum charge density for electrodeposition at ∼ 0.155−2. A series of electrodepositions were performed from 0 to 0.155−2 for probing the change of the charge transport with more charges used for the electrodeposition. We found that the impedance increased in the high-frequency range (above 104 Hz) and decreased in the low-frequency range (below 102 Hz). Three equivalent circuit models were proposed for fitting impedance data at different charge densities for a better understanding of the film growth process. The suppressed cyclic voltammogram (CV) of PEDOT-MA-cholesterol showed that the charge storage capability was essentially eliminated in the thickest films. The limited doping of the films was corroborated by their diminished electrochromic behavior, polaron-dominating absorption in UV-vis, overoxidized S 2p X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) signal of electrodeposited films, and proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) of chemically polymerized samples. Dense film morphologies were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Grazing incident X-ray diffraction (GIWAXS) indicated the disrupted stacking of conjugated chains, which correlated with the decreased conductivity of the PEDOT-MA-cholesterol films. The measurement of the electrical conductivity gave a value of around 3.30 × 10−6−1 which is about six orders of magnitude lower than has been seen in PEDOT (∼3 Graphical abstract available at:
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    Carbon Additive Manufacturing with a Near-Replica “Green-to-Brown” Transformation
    (Advanced Materials, 2023-05-30) Zhang, Chunyan; Shi, Baohui; He, Jinlong; Zhou, Lyu; Park, Soyeon; Doshi, Sagar; Shang, Yuanyuan; Deng, Kaiyue; Giordano, Marc; Qi, Xiangjun; Cui, Shuang; Liu, Ling; Ni, Chaoying; Fu, Kun Kelvin
    Nanocomposites containing nanoscale materials offer exciting opportunities to encode nanoscale features into macroscale dimensions, which produces unprecedented impact in material design and application. However, conventional methods cannot process nanocomposites with a high particle loading, as well as nanocomposites with the ability to be tailored at multiple scales. A composite architected mesoscale process strategy that brings particle loading nanoscale materials combined with multiscale features including nanoscale manipulation, mesoscale architecture, and macroscale formation to create spatially programmed nanocomposites with high particle loading and multiscale tailorability is reported. The process features a low-shrinking (<10%) “green-to-brown” transformation, making a near-geometric replica of the 3D design to produce a “brown” part with full nanomaterials to allow further matrix infill. This demonstration includes additively manufactured carbon nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and thermoset epoxy, leading to multiscale CNTs tailorability, performance improvement, and 3D complex geometry feasibility. The process can produce nanomaterial-assembled architectures with 3D geometry and multiscale features and can incorporate a wide range of matrix materials, such as polymers, metals, and ceramics, to fabricate nanocomposites for new device structures and applications.
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    Role of Semiconductor Nanostructures in Photon Upconversion Applications
    (ACS Applied Optical Materials, 2023-04-28) Cleveland, Jill M.; Welsch, Tory A.; Chase, D. Bruce; Doty, Matthew F.
    Photon upconversion, a process in which multiple low-energy photons are absorbed and re-emitted as higher-energy photons, has recently received a significant amount of attention due to its potential utility across a wide range of optical applications. Traditionally, two types of materials have been used for photon upconversion applications: lanthanide-doped nanocrystals and triplet–triplet annihilation molecules. While these systems have demonstrated good upconversion efficiencies, they both suffer from some limitations, particularly in spectral utilization. In this review, we will highlight the ways semiconductor nanocrystals have been integrated into existing upconverison platforms to address their limitations and improve their usability for some specific upconversion applications. Additionally, we will discuss the recent development of upconversion platforms based entirely on semiconductor nanostructures. These systems rely on the size-, shape-, and composition-dependent optical properties of semiconductors to design upconverting materials with the necessary electronic structure for a specific application. We discuss the current status of these hybrid and pure semiconductor-based upconverters and suggest future directions for further improving their upconversion performance.
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