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- ItemAchieving Carbon Neutrality: US and India Weigh Policy Options(Biden School of Public Policy & Administration, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA, 2022-06-01) Krishnan, Palaniappa; Kasturi, PrahladThe paper takes a critical look at the US and India positions on achieving carbon neutrality as per their commitment to the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. These are based on the climate change policies of the leaders of the two countries, President Joe Biden, and Prime Minister Narendra Modi, at the COP 26 summit held in Glasgow, Scotland in November 2021. Policy tools to achieve carbon neutrality such as cap and trade and carbon tax (both market-based approaches), regulations (command and control approach) and other economic incentives such as tax credits and subsidies are examined. Based on various empirical research published in the literature regarding the two countries, an assessment is made regarding the use of these tools to achieve the goals of efficiency, equity, liberty, and sustainability in the two countries. Carbon taxation at the national level is currently missing in both countries and has the potential to be a revenue source of climate finance. The US needs to assert its leadership among the OECD donor countries to provide climate finance to developing countries and direct more of such finance for adaptation to climate change among developing countries. Low Carbon Technology (LCT) transfer through trade is low among both countries and there is a need to accelerate this process. Innovations that are occurring in both countries presently in nuclear power, hydrogen power and other clean energy such as solar, hydroelectric, geothermal and biomass can provide a great fillip to early achievement of net zero emissions. International cooperation and partnership between the US and India are growing in pursuing nuclear and solar as clean fuels. However, stepped up co-innovation in clean energy between the two countries holds great dividends to achieve carbon neutrality in both countries.
- ItemAmbiguity among Partners: Understanding Power and Perception Under Conditions of Mutuality(Perspectives on Public Management and Governance, 2022-10-05) Islett, Kimberley R.; Bryan, Tara K.; St Clair-Sims, Rebekah L.Power is a construct that is relevant anytime two actors come together. Typically power examinations have been focused on assessments among actors with asymmetrical power profiles. We argue existing characterizations of power are insufficient to understand perceptions of relationship quality when partners have a more balanced power profile. This is the case with an important class of partnerships—those between governments and philanthropic Foundations. We assessed power mutuality and its effects on relationship quality with a mixed methods approach, relying heavily on fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis techniques and interview data. Our findings point to new insights into those power relationships typically examined in the extant literature, those with asymmetry, as well as under condition of mutuality. With regard to asymmetrical power, we point to needed investigation into the role of intangible resources, such as knowledge and legitimacy, to achieve goals, rather than the predominant focus on financial and other tangible resources. With regard to conditions of mutuality, we illustrate that mutuality yields relational ambiguity in the relationship and results in partner tension. Furthermore, our study finds that under conditions of mutuality, resource contributions from the benefactor need to address instrumental organizational needs, not just needs that contribute to mission outcomes.
- ItemAre LARC Users Less Likely to Use Condoms? An Analysis of U.S. Women Initiating LARC in 2008–2018(Women's Health Issues, 2022-06-21) Eeckhaut, Mieke C. W.; Fitzpatrick, KatieIntroduction: Public health professionals have raised concern that increased use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) could raise women's risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), because LARC's superior pregnancy protection may decrease women's motivation to use a barrier method for supplemental pregnancy prevention. This study uses population-based data to examine whether condom use is lower, particularly among young women who are at increased STI risk, after initiating LARC versus moderately effective methods. Methods: With the 2011–2019 data files of the National Survey of Family Growth, we examine the percent of sexually active months with condom use in the year after LARC or moderately effective method initiation for a nationally representative sample of 2,018 women aged 15–44 years. Multinomial logistic models regressed condom use on method type and age group, as well as their interaction, while adjusting for key confounders. Results: The unadjusted likelihood of any condom use is substantially lower among women who initiated LARC versus moderately effective methods (12% vs. 37%), and this difference is greater among younger versus older women. After accounting for differences in women's reproductive and sociodemographic profiles, however, a statistically significant difference in condom use by method initiated remains only for those aged 20–34 years. Conclusions: Crude estimates suggest that condom use is lower after initiating LARC versus moderately effective methods, especially among young women. After accounting for the confounding effects of LARC users’ distinct profiles—particularly in terms of parity and teenage childbearing—the difference is decreased overall and no longer significant for adolescent women. Overall results indicate a need for new STI prevention strategies and policies that emphasize the importance of dual prevention for LARC users at risk of STIs.
- ItemBeyond Keifer Sutherland’s Designated Survivor, Recovering Washington, D.C.: An Examination of the District of Columbia’s Recovery Plan(Biden School of Public Policy and Administration, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 2020) Cox, ZacharyThe popular imagination, as exhibited by the television show Designated Survivor, constructs disaster recovery as a process performed by omnipotent government agents who guide action in ways that are comprehensive, fair, and efficient. However, as the National Disaster Recovery Plan and the District of Columbia Recovery Plan demonstrate, there is little understanding of the processes required to recover from a disaster. This paper examines the Plan for the District of Columbia’s Economic Recovery from disaster and proposes recommendations that could more easily streamline the planning and recovery of disaster in Washington, DC.
- ItemConsequences and dangers of gerrymandering: An ongoing threat to voter equality and fairness(University of Delaware’s Biden School of Public Policy and Administration, Newark, DE, 2020) Schenk, EllenDespite the many movements and organizations dedicated to fighting against gerrymandering, gerrymandering and its various forms remain a current issue in elections. While gerrymandering has been an issue consistently brought before the Supreme Court, there has been no established measure to identify a gerrymandered district. There is a broad scope of literature surrounding suggested measures, such as the efficiency gap, the mean-median gap, and the seats-to-votes curve. Gerrymandering presents a clear and present threat to the equality of elections due to the lack of competition and an unfair process of redistricting. Reforms such as guidelines for commissions and the 2020 census need to be undertaken to ensure a fair and just reapportionment process.
- ItemEditors’ Essay: Questioning Our Past, Moving into the Future(Perspectives on Public Management and Governance, 2022-07-19) Isett, Kimberley; Sowa, JessicaAs we take the helm of Perspectives on Public Management and Governance (PPMG), we want to take this opportunity to communicate our direction and ideas for the future of the journal. This starts with considering theory and its role in public management. The role of theory is to help us make sense of the world around us—to take stock of what we know and attempt to bring order out of chaos. Across academic fields and disciplines, peer-reviewed journals that focus on the development and advancement of theory are the home for that kind of knowledge. PPMG, as such a journal, has an obligation to cast a wide net to capture how knowledge and important relationships shift over time in public management. Good theory is enduring. Scholars who develop theory have an obligation to remain open to questioning their fundamental assumptions and biases—and we all have them—so that these underlying currents are surfaced and explored to determine how they affect how we view the world and how those currents change over time.
- ItemElectric vehicle adoption in small island economies: Review from a technology transition perspective(Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, 2022-02-15) Shah, Kalim U.; Awojobi, Mohammed; Soomauroo, ZakiaSmall Island States present features, such as compact road networks, low commuter distances, and often large tourism service sectors, that could make the adoption of electric vehicles for transportation which is an attractive way to reduce their costly dependence on imported fossil fuel and their greenhouse gas emissions. Through the transition theory lens, we review the national policy measures and broad clean transportation targets that small island countries are implementing to encourage electric mobility deployment. From information compiled for 18 small island countries, we find a growing trend in electric vehicle and infrastructure development incentives among broader clean transportation transformation policies and nationally determined contribution targets; and large country-to-country variations in enabling conditions to smoothen EV transition. Small island countries are not uniform but instead are very dispersed across the transition S-curve. The review, therefore, finds that the mobility transition requires island-specific approaches and solutions that will accentuate critical policy and management elements for fostering transitions.
- ItemExamining Intersections between Open Government and Nonprofit Advocacy: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives about an Emerging Relationship(The International Research Society for Public Management, 2014-04-09) McNutt, John; Justice, Jonathan; Carter, DavidThe creation of open and transparent government has long been a goal of reformers, students of democratic institutions and progressives of all stripes. The argument is that a transparent government is more stable, better functioning and enjoys a higher level of support (Justice, McNutt. & Smith, 2011). The International movement toward open government is a major force in public management (Lathrop & Ruma, 2010). While many in the nonprofit sector would support open government (and have actively advocated for it), the function that is most affected is nonprofit advocacy. Advocates can directly benefit from open government. Information is the lifeblood of nonprofit advocacy and much of the information that advocates require is the target of open government programs (see Berry & Arons, 2002; Libby, 2011; Bass, Arons, Guinane & Carter, 2007). This paper will explore the relationship between nonprofit advocacy and policy making and the movement toward open government. We will develop a theoretical model that describes the relationship between the sector in general and nonprofit advocacy in specific, on the one hand, and open government efforts on the other. We will illustrate the model with empirical findings from a recent study of the use of transparency data by advocates in a single state. In this research we surveyed the population on nonprofits that employed a legislative advocate. The study dealt with the use of information by advocates and the utility of open government/transparency resources for improving the quality of advocacy.
- ItemExploring the characteristics and activities of American Transition initiatives(None, 2015-12-12) Sarzynski, Andrea; Barnes, PhillipObservers have raised concern over the diversity of the communities participating the Transition Movement (Alloun & Alexander, 2014; Chatterton & Cutler, 2008; Seyfang, 2009). To investigate, the following material examines racial and socioeconomic characteristics of the American communities participating in the international Transition Network, known in the United States as Transition United States (hereafter, TUS). We ask whether the communities housing participating initiatives illustrate less diversity than the typical American community, as has been suggested by prior anecdotal observation, and whether we can group the communities by common characteristics. We also relate these characteristics to selected activities in which the Transition communities were, are planning, or had been participating in as of mid-2014. We ask whether the types of communities are more likely to engage in certain transition activities. The results do not conform to expectations, illustrating substantial variability in the characteristics of the participating Transition communities as well as in the activities that those communities are engaged. The results improve our understanding of the current practice of Transition communities and the communities that they serve.
- ItemHealth Equity Requires Advocacy: Rejecting Silence and Individualism for the Sake of Public Health(Biden School of Public Policy & Administration, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA, 2022-06-01) Bogan, Corinne NOver time, the field and profession of public health has shied away from political engagement and reform efforts, focusing primarily on behavioral models of public health. In doing so, we have inadvertently reinforced radical individualism and inoculated the larger society against suspicion that the structures of our health, economic, and social systems are largely responsible for most health disparities. This commentary examines why responding to Covid-19 related inequities requires much more than monetary public health investments. Significant advocacy efforts are required to address the political determinants of health, and I argue that the field of public health should reclaim its position as a leader of progressive social and cultural change, in the interest of health.
- ItemThe Impact of Historical Residential Discrimination Policies in Richmond, Virginia(Biden School of Public Policy & Administration, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA, 2022-06-03) Schmidt, N KristianThe impact of historical residential segregation polices has affected many cities in the United States, but none more than Richmond Virginia. Richmond has a long history of disenfranchisement which still is prevalent today. Known as the capital of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, Richmond has cultured a path of differences in educational, occupational, and residential opportunities for African Americans. This paper examines how segregation has been able to exist even with policies that were created to improve conditions for minorities. My research will provide a chronological background for housing polices and examine how the implementation of these policies affected African Americans. The academic article will focus on the current impacts of racial covenants and the Home Owner’s Loan Corporation redlining policies of the 1930s. The article will compare and contrast these former redlined areas county by county and examine current conditions in 2021. Conditions such as healthcare access, social vulnerability, and educational opportunities are highlighted. The HOLC highly desirable sections will be examined to provide the disparities in economics, health and education. It is clear that as a result of such polices African Americans attend schools with fewer resources then those located in other areas throughout the city. The paper makes the case for health disparities between blacks and whites by providing statistics which highlight the differences in life expectancy, median age, poverty, and other social vulnerabilities. Lastly, the article concludes with the current state of the city.
- ItemThe Increasing Concentration of War Powers in the Executive Branch: A Legislative History of Exercised War Powers(Biden School of Public Policy & Administration, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA, 2022-06-01) Wolgast, Henry KurtisConstitutional constraints on a President’s ability to lead the nation to war have been unrealized repeatedly since WWII. A legislative trend of granting broad and unchecked authority to the President to use military action has changed the nature of American entry into armed conflicts. The most frequently relied upon legislative method for granting war powers today, Authorizations for Use of Military Force (AUMFs), grant broad-reaching war powers to the executive branch. The 2001 and 2002 AUMFs have granted four consecutive Presidents the ability to act swiftly and divisively to combat enemies of the state across the globe without Congressional deliberation or authorization (United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 2017, p. 2). While civil liberties groups and Constitutional scholars have widely recognized that this authority poses a threat to the balance of power and transparency of a democratic society (Bradley & Goldsmith, 2005, p. 88), constitutional originalists recognize unilateral power of the executive in military action (Ramsey, 2002, p. 21) and defense officials value security and stress the importance of retaining secrecy as to minimize the global recognition of small but dangerous terrorist groups (Cronk, 2017, p. 1). The Biden administration has called for a new AUMF to replace the outdated and unilateral authorizing language of the post-9-11 war powers that have been utilized to wage war across the globe. This call must be swiftly acted upon by Congress, as it would enact a return to Congressional oversight of presidential war powers not seen in contemporary U.S. military history.
- ItemLocal Policy Responses to Urban Air Pollution and Ecosystem Stress(School of Public Policy and Administration, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 2010-10) Sarzynski, AndreaUrbanization is proceeding rapidly across the globe. During the 20th century, the urban population grew from approximately 200 million to 2.9 billion worldwide . By 2030, the United Nations predicts cities will be home to another 2 billion residents . Such rapid growth is likely to have widespread consequences for urban ecosystems, which in some places are already stressed due to changes in land cover; air pollution; local, regional, and global climate; water quality and availability; and biodiversity. Yet, few studies have focused specifically on the influence of urbanization on key ecosystem services, such as the provision of clean water and air. As a result, the implications of coming urbanization for local sustainability efforts remain underdeveloped. The goal of this paper is to map ecosystem stress and response strategies with respect to urban air pollution. To this end, the paper briefly summarizes the conceptual linkages between urbanization, air quality, and ecosystem services. The paper next reviews existing research on areas already stressed by air pollution, compiles predictions regarding future urbanization and its likely air quality impacts, and compiles information regarding locally-adopted sustainability strategies to deal with coming air pollution stress. The paper concludes with a summary of current research gaps and an agenda for future research oriented towards local sustainability efforts