Browsing Biden School of Public Policy & Administration by Issue Date
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- ItemSocial Networking Choices and Environmental Advocacy Organizations: Implications for Global Social Justice(School of Public Policy and Administration, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 2007-11) McNutt, John; Flanagan, MeredithThis paper reports the results of a national study of social media by a group of large environmental advocacy organizations.A model for technology use was offered and tested.
- ItemTransnational Nonprofit Advocacy Organizations and the Social Networking Technology Revolution: Patterns of Adoption across Organizational Fields(School of Public Policy and Administration, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 2008-07-05) McNutt, John; Flanagan, MeredithThis paper reports a study of social media usage by transnational organizations. The study examines the degree of social media penetration in organizational fields
- ItemLocal Policy Responses to Urban Air Pollution and Ecosystem Stress(School of Public Policy and Administration, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 2010-10) Sarzynski, AndreaUrbanization is proceeding rapidly across the globe. During the 20th century, the urban population grew from approximately 200 million to 2.9 billion worldwide . By 2030, the United Nations predicts cities will be home to another 2 billion residents . Such rapid growth is likely to have widespread consequences for urban ecosystems, which in some places are already stressed due to changes in land cover; air pollution; local, regional, and global climate; water quality and availability; and biodiversity. Yet, few studies have focused specifically on the influence of urbanization on key ecosystem services, such as the provision of clean water and air. As a result, the implications of coming urbanization for local sustainability efforts remain underdeveloped. The goal of this paper is to map ecosystem stress and response strategies with respect to urban air pollution. To this end, the paper briefly summarizes the conceptual linkages between urbanization, air quality, and ecosystem services. The paper next reviews existing research on areas already stressed by air pollution, compiles predictions regarding future urbanization and its likely air quality impacts, and compiles information regarding locally-adopted sustainability strategies to deal with coming air pollution stress. The paper concludes with a summary of current research gaps and an agenda for future research oriented towards local sustainability efforts
- ItemExamining Intersections between Open Government and Nonprofit Advocacy: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives about an Emerging Relationship(The International Research Society for Public Management, 2014-04-09) McNutt, John; Justice, Jonathan; Carter, DavidThe creation of open and transparent government has long been a goal of reformers, students of democratic institutions and progressives of all stripes. The argument is that a transparent government is more stable, better functioning and enjoys a higher level of support (Justice, McNutt. & Smith, 2011). The International movement toward open government is a major force in public management (Lathrop & Ruma, 2010). While many in the nonprofit sector would support open government (and have actively advocated for it), the function that is most affected is nonprofit advocacy. Advocates can directly benefit from open government. Information is the lifeblood of nonprofit advocacy and much of the information that advocates require is the target of open government programs (see Berry & Arons, 2002; Libby, 2011; Bass, Arons, Guinane & Carter, 2007). This paper will explore the relationship between nonprofit advocacy and policy making and the movement toward open government. We will develop a theoretical model that describes the relationship between the sector in general and nonprofit advocacy in specific, on the one hand, and open government efforts on the other. We will illustrate the model with empirical findings from a recent study of the use of transparency data by advocates in a single state. In this research we surveyed the population on nonprofits that employed a legislative advocate. The study dealt with the use of information by advocates and the utility of open government/transparency resources for improving the quality of advocacy.
- ItemExploring the characteristics and activities of American Transition initiatives(None, 2015-12-12) Sarzynski, Andrea; Barnes, PhillipObservers have raised concern over the diversity of the communities participating the Transition Movement (Alloun & Alexander, 2014; Chatterton & Cutler, 2008; Seyfang, 2009). To investigate, the following material examines racial and socioeconomic characteristics of the American communities participating in the international Transition Network, known in the United States as Transition United States (hereafter, TUS). We ask whether the communities housing participating initiatives illustrate less diversity than the typical American community, as has been suggested by prior anecdotal observation, and whether we can group the communities by common characteristics. We also relate these characteristics to selected activities in which the Transition communities were, are planning, or had been participating in as of mid-2014. We ask whether the types of communities are more likely to engage in certain transition activities. The results do not conform to expectations, illustrating substantial variability in the characteristics of the participating Transition communities as well as in the activities that those communities are engaged. The results improve our understanding of the current practice of Transition communities and the communities that they serve.
- ItemPredicting Civic Hackathons in Local Communities: Perspectives from Social Capital and Creative Class Theory(Presented at the ISTR Conference, Stockholm, 2016-09-04) McNutt, John G.; Justice, Jonathan B.The growth of technology-led voluntary efforts has blossomed in the past decades. While some of these are online, others are face to face. Hackathons are a part of the latter group. Volunteers come to work on community problems that involve technology. They are mostly short term face to face events. While they might be considered instances of episodic volunteering, they represent a regular series of volunteering opportunities for others. Hackathons are generally associated with the Civic Technology Movement, which aims at involving citizens, nonprofits and other stakeholders in reinventing government. Civic hacking is a new phenomenon, and the literature is limited. An important issue that has not been explored is why certain communities have hackathons while others do not. In this research effort, we hope to fill that gap in the literature by exploring the following questions: 1) Are there variations among communities in their use of Civic Hackathons to solve community issues? 2) Which factors account for this variation (if any)? Theoretical Framework: To explain this variation we will need to account for differences in community problem-solving and labor-force characteristics. The theoretical framework uses Social Capital Theory (Putnam, 2000) and Creative Class Theory (Florida, 2003). Social capital theory speaks to the participatory nature of community problem solving while Creative Class Theory deals with the nature of the labor force. Methodology: This is cross sectional study using secondary data. The unit of analysis is U.S. counties. The dependent variable is the presence or absence of a Hackathon. The independent variables are an index of social capital and an index of creative class employment. Statistical analysis is accomplished with a generalized linear analysis using logistic regression. Findings: The results suggest that creative class workforce and location in a metropolitan area are better predictors of the location of a Hackathon than social capital.
- ItemRising to Meet the Central Challenge of Our Time by(Biden School of Public Policy and Administration, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 2019) Biden, Joseph R., Jr.
- ItemConsequences and dangers of gerrymandering: An ongoing threat to voter equality and fairness(University of Delaware’s Biden School of Public Policy and Administration, Newark, DE, 2020) Schenk, EllenDespite the many movements and organizations dedicated to fighting against gerrymandering, gerrymandering and its various forms remain a current issue in elections. While gerrymandering has been an issue consistently brought before the Supreme Court, there has been no established measure to identify a gerrymandered district. There is a broad scope of literature surrounding suggested measures, such as the efficiency gap, the mean-median gap, and the seats-to-votes curve. Gerrymandering presents a clear and present threat to the equality of elections due to the lack of competition and an unfair process of redistricting. Reforms such as guidelines for commissions and the 2020 census need to be undertaken to ensure a fair and just reapportionment process.
- ItemWhat is the ‘Energy Efficiency Gap’? Analyzing market failures to energy efficiency(Biden School of Public Policy and Administration, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 2020) Raghoo, PraveshEnergy efficiency is key to establishing a sustainable and clean environment for present and future generations. Without initiatives to develop energy efficiency, there are doubts that the path towards greater sustainability can ever be achieved. The literature on energy efficiency has long demonstrated the presence and persistence of an ‘energy efficiency gap.’ This paper examines the nature and size of this gap, identifies vital explanatory factors, and explores approaches by which to bridge the gap between potential and actual improvements in energy efficiency for sustainable development.
- ItemBeyond Keifer Sutherland’s Designated Survivor, Recovering Washington, D.C.: An Examination of the District of Columbia’s Recovery Plan(Biden School of Public Policy and Administration, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 2020) Cox, ZacharyThe popular imagination, as exhibited by the television show Designated Survivor, constructs disaster recovery as a process performed by omnipotent government agents who guide action in ways that are comprehensive, fair, and efficient. However, as the National Disaster Recovery Plan and the District of Columbia Recovery Plan demonstrate, there is little understanding of the processes required to recover from a disaster. This paper examines the Plan for the District of Columbia’s Economic Recovery from disaster and proposes recommendations that could more easily streamline the planning and recovery of disaster in Washington, DC.
- ItemElectric vehicle adoption in small island economies: Review from a technology transition perspective(Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, 2022-02-15) Shah, Kalim U.; Awojobi, Mohammed; Soomauroo, ZakiaSmall Island States present features, such as compact road networks, low commuter distances, and often large tourism service sectors, that could make the adoption of electric vehicles for transportation which is an attractive way to reduce their costly dependence on imported fossil fuel and their greenhouse gas emissions. Through the transition theory lens, we review the national policy measures and broad clean transportation targets that small island countries are implementing to encourage electric mobility deployment. From information compiled for 18 small island countries, we find a growing trend in electric vehicle and infrastructure development incentives among broader clean transportation transformation policies and nationally determined contribution targets; and large country-to-country variations in enabling conditions to smoothen EV transition. Small island countries are not uniform but instead are very dispersed across the transition S-curve. The review, therefore, finds that the mobility transition requires island-specific approaches and solutions that will accentuate critical policy and management elements for fostering transitions.
- ItemRegional county-level housing inventory predictions and the effects on hurricane risk(Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2022-03-30) Williams, Caroline J.; Davidson, Rachel A.; Nozick, Linda K.; Trainor, Joseph E.; Millea, Meghan; Kruse, Jamie L.Regional hurricane risk is often assessed assuming a static housing inventory, yet a region's housing inventory changes continually. Failing to include changes in the built environment in hurricane risk modeling can substantially underestimate expected losses. This study uses publicly available data and a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network model to forecast the annual number of housing units for each of 1000 individual counties in the southeastern United States over the next 20 years. When evaluated using testing data, the estimated number of housing units was almost always (97.3 % of the time), no more than 1 percentage point different than the observed number, predictive errors that are acceptable for most practical purposes. Comparisons suggest the LSTM outperforms the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and simpler linear trend models. The housing unit projections can help facilitate a quantification of changes in future expected losses and other impacts caused by hurricanes. For example, this study finds that if a hurricane with characteristics similar to Hurricane Harvey were to impact southeastern Texas in 20 years, the residential property and flood losses would be nearly USD 4 billion (38 %) greater due to the expected increase of 1.3 million new housing units (41 %) in the region.
- ItemManaging disaster risk associated with critical infrastructure systems: a system-level conceptual framework for research and policy guidance(Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, 2022-04-25) Davidson, Rachel A.; Kendra, James; Ewing, Bradley; Nozick, Linda K.; Starbird, Kate; Cox, Zachary; Leon-Corwin, MaggieThis paper presents a new conceptual framework of the disaster risk of critical infrastructure systems in terms of societal impacts. Much research on infrastructure reliability focuses on specific issues related to the technical system or human coping. Focusing on the end goal of infrastructure services – societal functioning – this framework offers a new way to understand how those more focused research areas connect and the current thinking in each. Following an overview of the framework, each component is discussed in turn, including the initial buildout of physical systems; event occurrence; service interruptions; service provider response; user adaptations to preserve or create needed services; and the ending deficit in societal function. Possible uses of the framework include catalysing and guiding a systematic research agenda that could ultimately lead to a computational framework and stimulating discussion on resilience within utility and emergency management organisations and the larger community.