Open Access Publications
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Open access publications by faculty, postdocs, and graduate students in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry.
Now showing 1 - 5 of 27
- ItemAuthentication of edible oils using an infrared spectral library and digital sample sets: A feasibility study(Journal of Chemometrics, 2023-03-19) Sota-Uba, Isio; White, Collin G.; Booksh, Karl; Lavine, Barry K.A potential method to determine whether two varieties of edible oils can be differentiated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is proposed using digitally generated data of adulterated edible oils from an infrared (IR) spectral library. The first step is the evaluation of digitally blended data sets. Specifically, IR spectra of adulterated edible oils are computed from digitally blending experimental data of the IR spectra of an edible oil and the corresponding adulterant using the appropriate mixing coefficients to achieve the desired level of adulteration. To determine whether two edible oils can be differentiated by FTIR spectroscopy, pure IR spectra of the two edible oils are compared with IR spectra of two edible oils digitally mixed using a genetic algorithm for pattern recognition to solve a ternary classification problem. If the IR spectra of the two edible oils and their binary mixtures are differentiable from principal component plots of the spectral data, then differences between the IR spectra of these two edible oils are of sufficient magnitude to ensure that a reliable classification by FTIR spectroscopy can be obtained. Using this approach, the feasibility of authenticating edible oils such as extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) directly from library spectra is demonstrated. For this study, both digital and experimental data are combined to generate training and validation data sets to assess detection limits in FTIR spectroscopy for the adulterants.
- ItemSynthesis and Crystal Structure of the Zintl Phases Na2CaCdSb2, Na2SrCdSb2 and Na2EuCdSb2(Inorganics, 2022-12-18) Saparov, Bayram; Bobev, SvilenThis work details the synthesis and the crystal structures of the quaternary Zintl phases Na2CaCdSb2, Na2SrCdSb2 and Na2EuCdSb2. They are isostructural and their noncentrosymmetric structure is with the space group Pmc21 (Pearson code oP12). All structural work is carried out via single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The structure features [CdSb2]4– layers of corner-shared CdSb4 tetrahedra, which are stacked along the b-crystallographic axis and are separated by cations. The results from the structure refinements suggest that in addition to full cation ordering, which is typical for this structure, there also exists a possibility for an accommodation of a small degree of cation disorder.
- ItemThe Effect of Surface Terminations on the Initial Stages of TiO2 Deposition on Functionalized Silicon(ChemPhysChem, 2023-01-10) Parke, Tyler; Silva-Quinones, Dhamelyz; Wang, George T.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.As atomic layer deposition (ALD) emerges as a method to fabricate architectures with atomic precision, emphasis is placed on understanding surface reactions and nucleation mechanisms. ALD of titanium dioxide with TiCl4 and water has been used to investigate deposition processes in general, but the effect of surface termination on the initial TiO2 nucleation lacks needed mechanistic insights. This work examines the adsorption of TiCl4 on Cl−, H−, and HO− terminated Si(100) and Si(111) surfaces to elucidate the general role of different surface structures and defect types in manipulating surface reactivity of growth and non-growth substrates. The surface sites and their role in the initial stages of deposition are examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Density functional theory (DFT) computations of the local functionalized silicon surfaces suggest oxygen-containing defects are primary drivers of selectivity loss on these surfaces. Graphical Abstract available at: https://doi.org/10.1002/cphc.202200724 Deposition of TiO2 from TiCl4 and water dosing cycles onto H- and Cl-terminated silicon surfaces is defined by the interaction of the adsorbate molecule with defects on these surfaces. The nature of these defects and their effect on selectivity of deposition are investigated.
- ItemAnion Binding as a Strategy for the Synthesis of Porous Salts(Chemistry of Materials, 2022-12-27) Antonio, Alexandra M.; Dworzak, Michael R.; Korman, Kyle J.; Yap, Glenn P. A.; Bloch, Eric D.Porous salts have recently emerged as a promising new class of ultratunable permanently microporous solids. These adsorbents, which were first reported as ionic solids based on porous cations and anions, can be isolated from a wide variety of charged, permanently porous coordination cages. A challenge in realizing the full tunability of such systems, however, lies in the fact that the majority of coordination cages for which surface areas have been reported are comprised of charge-balanced inorganic and organic building blocks that result in neutral cages. As such, most reported permanently porous coordination cages cannot be used as reagents in the synthesis of porous salts. Here, we show that the facile reaction of TBAX (TBA+ = tetra-n-butylammonium; X = F– and Cl–) with molybdenum paddlewheel-based coordination cages of the M4L4 and M24L24 lantern and cuboctahedra structure types, respectively, affords charged cages by virtue of coordination of halide anions to the internal and/or external metal sites on these structures, as confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. At a practical level, the TBAX/cage reactions, which are fully reversible upon isolation of the cage with the appropriate solvent, solubilize otherwise rigorously insoluble cages. This method significantly increases the solution processability of these highly porous solids. Toward the formation of new porous salts, halide binding also serves to incorporate charge on neutral cages and make them amenable to simple salt metathesis reactions to afford new porous salts based on anions and cations with intrinsic porosity. A combination of diffraction methods and a suite of spectroscopic tools confirms speciation of the isolated solids, which represent a new class of highly tunable porous salts. Ultimately, this work represents a roadmap for the preparation of new porous solids and showcases the utility and broad applicability of anion binding as a strategy for the synthesis of porous salts.
- ItemEvolution of multiple spillover hydrogen species on anatase titanium dioxide(Cell Reports Physical Science, 2022-12-21) Liu, Kairui; Hou, Guangjin; Gao, Pan; Nie, Xuezhong; Bai, Shi; Janik, Michael J.; Zhang, Z. ConradHydrogen spillover is a widespread phenomenon on reducible metal oxide surfaces, with numerous observations confirming its occurrence. However, direct physical characterization of the spillover hydrogen species on an oxide catalyst support remains challenging. Differentiating the binding sites of specific spillover hydrogen species has been elusive. Herein, we vary temperature and reductive conditions, then quench and detect the physicochemical character of three distinct spillover hydrogen species on anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2-A) by deuterium magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, aided by density functional theory. Fast cooling during the sample preparation is crucial in quenching the spillover deuterium species to enable MAS NMR detection. Energetically favorable spillover deuterium species evolve from deuteron to deuteride states with increasing reduction temperature. Prevailing deuteron species reside on the 2-fold-coordinated O2c site of the TiO2-A (101) surface at low reduction temperature. At high reduction temperature, deuterides residing at oxygen vacancies (Ti6c–D–Ti5c) are formed.