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Open access publications by faculty, staff, postdocs, and graduate students from the Center for Community Research and Service.


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    Factors Associated with Antihypertensive Therapy Prescription in Youth Delaware Medicaid Recipients with Primary Hypertension Diagnosis
    (American Journal of Hypertension, 2023-10-21) Baker-Smith, Carissa M.; McDuffie, Mary J.; Nescott, Erin P.; Akins, Robert E.
    BACKGROUND Higher neighborhood deprivation is associated with hypertension diagnosis in youth. In this study, we assess if there is an association between neighborhood deprivation and antihypertensive therapy prescription among insured youth with a primary hypertension diagnosis. METHODS Using a retrospective cross-sectional design, we assessed the proportion of youth with a diagnosis of primary hypertension prescribed antihypertensive therapy. We evaluated the proportion of youth prescribed antihypertensive therapy and compared prescribing patterns by area deprivation index (ADI), age, sex, obesity diagnosis, race, ethnicity, and duration of Medicaid coverage. RESULTS Of the 65,452 non-pregnant Delaware Medicaid recipients, 8–18 years of age, 1,145 (1.7%) had an International classification of diseases (ICD)-9/ICD-10 diagnosis of primary hypertension; 165 of the 1,145 (14%) were prescribed antihypertensive therapy. Factors associated with a greater odds of prescription by multivariable logistic regression were age, obesity diagnosis, and duration of Medicaid full benefit coverage. Odds of antihypertensive therapy prescription did not vary by race, ethnicity, or ADI. CONCLUSIONS Antihypertensive therapy prescription rates are poor despite national guideline recommendations. Among youth receiving Delaware Medicaid between 2014 and 2019, prescription proportions were highest among youth of older age, with an obesity diagnosis, and among youth with longer duration of Medicaid benefit coverage. Although high area deprivation has been shown to be associated with the diagnosis of hypertension, high vs. low area deprivation was not associated with greater antihypertensive therapy prescription among youth with primary hypertension. Our finding of a mismatch between hypertension diagnosis and antihypertensive therapy prescription highlights a potential disparity in antihypertensive therapy prescription in youth. Graphical abstract available at:
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    Association of Area Deprivation With Primary Hypertension Diagnosis Among Youth Medicaid Recipients in Delaware
    (Jama Network Open, 2023-03-15) Baker-Smith, Carissa M.; Yang, Wei; McDuffie, Mary J.; Nescott, Erin P.; Wolf, Bethany J.; Wu, Cathy H.; Zhang, Zugui; Akins, Robert E.
    Key Points: Question: Is there an association between neighborhood measures of deprivation and hypertension diagnosis in youth? Findings: In this cross-sectional study of 65 452 Delaware Medicaid-insured youths aged 8 to 18 years between 2014 and 2019, residence in neighborhoods with a higher area deprivation index was associated with primary hypertension diagnosis. Meaning: These findings suggest that there is an association between greater neighborhood deprivation and a diagnosis of primary hypertension in youths, which may be an important factor to consider in assessing the presence and prevalence of hypertension in youths. Abstract: Importance: The association between degree of neighborhood deprivation and primary hypertension diagnosis in youth remains understudied. Objective: To assess the association between neighborhood measures of deprivation and primary hypertension diagnosis in youth. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 65 452 Delaware Medicaid-insured youths aged 8 to 18 years between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2019. Residence was geocoded by national area deprivation index (ADI). Exposures: Higher area deprivation. Main Outcomes and Measures; The main outcome was primary hypertension diagnosis based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and Tenth Revision codes. Data were analyzed between September 1, 2021, and December 31, 2022. Results: A total of 65 452 youths were included in the analysis, including 64 307 (98.3%) without a hypertension diagnosis (30 491 [47%] female and 33 813 [53%] male; mean [SD] age, 12.5 (3.1) years; 12 500 [19%] Hispanic, 25 473 [40%] non-Hispanic Black, 24 565 [38%] non-Hispanic White, and 1769 [3%] other race or ethnicity; 13 029 [20%] with obesity; and 31 548 [49%] with an ADI ≥50) and 1145 (1.7%) with a diagnosis of primary hypertension (mean [SD] age, 13.3 [2.8] years; 464 [41%] female and 681 [59%] male; 271 [24%] Hispanic, 460 [40%] non-Hispanic Black, 396 [35%] non-Hispanic White, and 18 [2%] of other race or ethnicity; 705 [62%] with obesity; and 614 [54%] with an ADI ≥50). The mean (SD) duration of full Medicaid benefit coverage was 61 (16) months for those with a diagnosis of primary hypertension and 46.0 (24.3) months for those without. By multivariable logistic regression, residence within communities with ADI greater than or equal to 50 was associated with 60% greater odds of a hypertension diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.61; 95% CI 1.04-2.51). Older age (OR per year, 1.16; 95%, CI, 1.14-1.18), an obesity diagnosis (OR, 5.16; 95% CI, 4.54-5.85), and longer duration of full Medicaid benefit coverage (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.03-1.04) were associated with greater odds of primary hypertension diagnosis, whereas female sex was associated with lower odds (OR, 0.68; 95%, 0.61-0.77). Model fit including a Medicaid-by-ADI interaction term was significant for the interaction and revealed slightly greater odds of hypertension diagnosis for youths with ADI less than 50 (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.03-1.04) vs ADI ≥50 (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.02-1.03). Race and ethnicity were not associated with primary hypertension diagnosis. Conclusions and Relevance; In this cross-sectional study, higher childhood neighborhood ADI, obesity, age, sex, and duration of Medicaid benefit coverage were associated with a primary hypertension diagnosis in youth. Screening algorithms and national guidelines may consider the importance of ADI when assessing for the presence and prevalence of primary hypertension in youth.
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