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ItemA Culturally Responsive Disposition: How Professional Learning and Teachers’ Beliefs About and Self-Efficacy for Culturally Responsive Teaching Relate to Instruction(AERA Open, 2023-01-07) Comstock, Meghan; Litke, Erica; Hill, Kirsten Lee; Desimone, Laura M.Persistent social inequities in the United States demand attention to culturally responsive (CR) teaching, which requires a specific disposition toward students and teaching. Using survey data of secondary teachers (N = 417) in seven urban districts across the country engaging in equity-oriented professional learning (PL) initiatives, we examine the relationship between teachers’ beliefs about, self-efficacy for, and engagement in PL around CR teaching and their self-reported CR teaching practices. We find correlational evidence that teacher-reported self-efficacy with CR teaching and engagement in PL focused on CR teaching are associated with higher self-reported frequency of CR teaching. We also find that teachers who have beliefs aligned with CR teaching have a stronger relationship between their CR teaching self-efficacy and self-reported CR teaching practices. Finally, we find evidence that changes in CR teaching self-efficacy are associated with changes in self-reported CR teaching—suggesting that CR teaching self-efficacy may drive changes in CR teaching. ItemAlternative methods for interpreting Monte Carlo experiments(Communications in Statistics - Simulation and Computation, 2022-06-06) Collier, Zachary K.; Zhang, Haobai; Soyoye, OlusholaResearch methodologists typically use descriptive statistics and plots to report the findings of Monte Carlo experiments. But previous literature suggests that Monte Carlo results deserve careful analysis rather than relying on simple descriptive statistics and plots of results, given the complex data conditions in simulation studies. As an alternative, data mining methods can also help readers digest Monte Carlo experiments. Therefore, our paper uses data mining methods to provide two novel contributions. First, we use detailed descriptions and code to illustrate how to use two data mining methods to analyze results from Monte Carlo experiments. Second, we demonstrate how data mining methods can be used in conjunction with interpreting plots, performing analysis of variance tests, and calculating effect sizes. Our study raises the awareness that there are alternative methods to interpretation and serves as a guide to readers for explaining the importance of manipulated conditions in Monte Carlo experiments. ItemAn exploration of individual, job, and organizational characteristics associated with district research leaders' knowledge brokering work(Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2022-10-18) Shewchuk, Samantha Jo; Farley-Ripple, ElizabethThe role of district research leaders (DRLs) in central offices has emerged as a strategy for improving the creation, flow, and use of research knowledge in decision-making. However, there is limited information about the responsibilities, opportunities, and challenges inherent in these roles. This exploratory qualitative study features document analysis to examine the individual backgrounds, job demands, and organizational contexts of DRLs. The result of this study suggest that multiple pathways to the DRL role exist, but few include formal training in knowledge brokering. Further findings suggest that DRL jobs are complex and entail diverse tasks, but share a focus on research leadership and coordination, identifying and obtaining relevant research information, and facilitating evidence-informed change. Moreover, organizational contexts varied in supportiveness for knowledge brokering work. Overall, there was limited evidence of alignment across individual, job, and organizational characteristics, signaling an opportunity to better define and support those in DRL roles. ItemAssociations Between Teacher and Student Mathematics, Science, and Literacy Anxiety in Fourth Grade(Journal of Educational Psychology, 2023-03-09) McLean, Leigh; Janssen, Jayley; Espinoza, Paul; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Jimenez, ManuelaThe present study explored associations among teachers’ anxiety for teaching mathematics, science, and English language arts and their students’ own anxiety in each content area, and how these associations varied depending on student sex and socioeconomic status (SES). Participants included 33 fourth-grade teachers and 463 students from 14 schools in the Southwestern United States. Multiple regression models with cluster-robust standard errors were run regressing students’ mid-year, self-reported content-area anxiety on teachers’ self-reported content-area anxiety at the beginning of the year and controlling for students’ beginning-of-year anxiety in that content area. Two interaction effects were detected whereby teachers’ mathematics and science anxiety were each positively associated with the mathematics and science anxiety of their low-SES students. Findings provide additional evidence for processes of emotional transmission between teachers and students in the classroom and provide additional information about the learning contexts and student groups for whom these processes may be particularly relevant. Educational Impact and Implications Statement: We investigated associations among teachers’ and students’ anxiety in mathematics, science, and literacy. We found that teachers’ anxiety in mathematics and science was associated with the mathematics and science anxiety of their low-SES students. Results highlight STEM content areas as contexts in which transmission of negative emotions between teachers and students may take place, as well as highlight the particular impacts these processes might have on students from underserved socioeconomic backgrounds. ItemAutistic Young Adults, Parents, and Practitioners Expectations of the Transition to Adulthood(SAGE Publications, 2020) Curtiss, Sarah L.; Lee, Gloria K.; Chun, Jina; Lee, Heekyung; Kuo, Hung Jen; Ami-Narh, DanielleParental expectations are important for autistic youth during the transition to adulthood, but less is known about the expectations of other stakeholder groups. The current study examines similarities and differences in expectations among autistic youth, parents, and professionals. Data were collected through six focus groups with 24 participants (7 parents, 11 professionals, and 6 young adults on the autism spectrum). Thematic analysis was used to identify five themes: Normative Hopes, Living with Uncertainty , Mismatch of Reality and Expectations , Impairments Shape Expectations, and Services Dictate Expectations. Autistic youth expressed the most optimism for the transition to adulthood. All stakeholder groups touched on the tension between matching expectations with abilities; however, only professionals indicated a direct relation between expectations and abilities. Both parents and professionals highlighted the role of service availability in shaping expectations. ItemBackward transfer, the relationship between new learning and prior ways of reasoning, and action versus process views of linear functions(Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 2022-02-16) Hohensee, Charles; Willoughby, Laura; Gartland, SaraBackward transfer is defined as the influence that new learning has on individuals’ prior ways of reasoning. In this article, we report on an exploratory study that examined the influences that quadratic functions instruction in real classrooms had on students’ prior ways of reasoning about linear functions. Two algebra classes and their teachers at two comprehensive high schools served as the participants. Both schools drew from low-socioeconomic urban populations. The study involved paper-and-pencil assessments about linear functions that were administered before and after a four- to five-week instructional unit on quadratic functions. The teachers were instructed to teach the quadratic functions unit using their regular approach. Qualitative analysis revealed three kinds of backward transfer influences and each influence was related to a shift in how the students reasoned about functions in terms of an action or process view of functions. Additionally, features of the instruction in each class provided plausible explanations for the similarities and differences in backward transfer effects across the two classrooms. These results offer insights into backward transfer, the relationship between prior knowledge and new learning, aspects of reasoning about linear functions, and instructional approaches to teaching functions. ItemThe Birds and the Bees: Teaching Comprehensive Human Sexuality Education to Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities(SAGE Publications, 2018) Curtiss, Sarah L.This article describes a framework for providing human sexuality instruction to individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD). There are two main components in this framework: (1) goals for healthy sexual development throughout the lifespan and (2) dimensions of sexuality instruction. For each dimension of instruction, this article will outline specific strategies and resources that can be used by special educations. By following the recommendations in this framework, special educators will be more confident in teaching human sexuality to their students with IDD. ItemBuilding Capacity to Deliver Sex Education to Individuals with Autism(Springer, 2016) Curtiss, Sarah L.; Ebata, AaronProfessionals from a variety of fields are called upon to understand the needs of individuals with autism, advocate for services, and provide sexuality education, however, few have formal training. This study examined a process to build capacity for individuals with autism to receive human sexuality education through training professionals via a one day workshop and providing ongoing education online. To better understand both the context for professionals and the outcomes of the training we examined the reasons participants attended, their work climate surrounding issues of human sexuality education for individuals with autism, the extent to which the training changed instructional behavior and perceptions of readiness, and the differential effectiveness of follow-up education based on online delivery modality (Facebook update or email message). Participants were interested in attending a training on human sexuality education even if they had no intention to teach this topic. In general, the climate among attendees was positive for teaching human sexuality education both in terms of their own values and their perceptions of support by others. The workshop and follow-up online education were effective for increasing instructional behavior and feelings of readiness. ItemConceptions of play by children in five countries: towards an understanding of playfulness (Las concepciones acerca del juego de niños de cinco países: hacia un mejor conocimiento de la actividad lúdica)(Journal for the Study of Education and Development, 2022-12-19) Mukherjee, Sarah J.; Bugallo, Lucía; Scheuerb, Nora; Cremin, Teresa; Montoro, Virginia; Ferrero, Martha; Preston, Marcia; Cheng, Doris; Golinkoff, Roberta; Popp, JillDrawing on a mixed-methods cross-cultural study undertaken in five locations in Argentina, Denmark, Hong Kong, England and the United States in 2018, this paper explores how children (aged five and seven) conceive of playfulness. Following a card-sorting task, 387 children selected familiar activities that they felt were most representative of play and not-play and explained their reasons. The children’s justifications were fully transcribed, and five corpora were created (one per site). Lexicometry was applied, generating sets of the characteristic responses per age in each site. In-depth qualitative interpretation of these modal responses revealed nine dimensions across play and not-play: pleasure, social context, materials, movement, agency, risk, goal, time and focus. Commonalities revealed that children’s ideas around play are not aligned with specific activities but with the sense of agency in a secure physical and social context when carrying out an activity experienced as an end in itself. Implications for playful pedagogies highlight the need to open up play with opportunities for children’s choice and initiative, confident exploration and immersion in the activities in which they participate. RESUMEN: A partir de un estudio multicultural de métodos mixtos realizado en 2018 en cinco localidades de Argentina, Dinamarca, Hong Kong, Reino Unido y Estados Unidos, en este artículo se exploran las concepciones acerca de la actividad lúdica de niños de cinco y siete años. Tras una tarea de clasificación de tarjetas, 387 niñas y niños seleccionaron aquellas actividades familiares que consideraban más representativas de juego y aquellas más ajenas al juego y explicaron sus razones. Se realizó una transcripción completa de sus justificaciones y se crearon cinco corpus (uno por localidad). Mediante la lexicometría, se generaron conjuntos de respuestas características por edad en cada localidad. Una interpretación cualitativa detallada de las respuestas reveló nueve dimensiones lúdicas y no lúdicas: disfrute, contexto social, materiales, movimiento, agencia, riesgo, meta, tiempo y focalización. Las coincidencias revelaron que las ideas que los niños albergan en torno al juego no están vinculadas a actividades específicas sino a un sentido de agencia en un contexto físico y social seguro a la hora de realizar una actividad como fin en sí misma. Las implicaciones para las pedagogías lúdicas subrayan la necesidad de incorporar al juego oportunidades de elección e iniciativa para los niños, así como una exploración e inmersión segura en las actividades en las que participan. ItemCurriculum and Coaching: Maximizing our Investments in Teaching(The Reading Teacher, 2021-09-14) Walpole, SharonThis article advocates for investments in curriculum and in coaching to support the work of teachers. It recommends coherent systems of professional learning to include active work with curriculum before it is used and support from coaches during use. To facilitate this work, the author provides a theory of change to move from curriculum and coaching to achievement, and a rubric for schools to use to document a set of enabling conditions and school-level norms that would facilitate the work of coaches. ItemDemocracy, dialogism, therapy, progressivism, anarchism, and other values in Martin Duberman’s innovative pedagogy(Dialogic Pedagogy, 2023-01-19) Matusov, EugeneMy essay aims to develop my authorial map-account of Martin Duberman’s various educational paradigms manifest in his experimental seminars at Princeton University, Hunter College, and Lehman College CUNY, 1966-1971 (and beyond) that I abstracted from his claims about his innovative educational teaching. I tried to develop a terrain of educational philosophical paradigms that shaped his goals, judgments, definitions of success, frustrations, and so on, and engage in a dialogic analysis of this terrain. His innovative pedagogy was driven by diverse and often conflicting educational philosophies involving democracy, dialogism, and therapy, among other values. I discuss the synergies and conflicts of these values in Duberman’s pedagogy. ItemDisseminating Resources Online for Teaching Sex Education to People with Developmental Disabilities(Sexuality and Disability, 2021-06-12) Curtiss, Sarah L.; Stoffers, MelissaSex education is important for individuals with developmental disabilities; however, it is difficult for educators to find resources to support them when teaching sex education. A website, asdsexed.org, was developed to disseminate sex education resources. Using analytic data from the website we explored how dissemination occurs online. We identified (1) how visitors were referred to the website; (2) what search terms were used to look for sex education resources; (3) what content was most frequently viewed; and (4) how visitors engaged with the content. Search engines were the top referrer. Variations on the phrase “body parts” were the most frequently recorded terms. Free lesson plans were the most viewed content. Privacy social stories were the most engaged with content. Online dissemination was a complex undertaking but did allow for potential sex educators to be connected with research-based resources. ItemEducational Change in Saudi Arabia: Insights from One USA/KSA Teacher Professional Development Collaborative(International Education Studies, 2021-09-26) Bentahar, Adil; Copeland, Kathleen D.; Stevens, Scott G.; Vukelich, Carol J.Teacher professional development (PD) programs ideally evaluate how professional learning experiences empower teachers to be effective change agents in their disciplines and communities. The Khbrat [“experiences” in Arabic] program is a year-long, global teacher PD initiative launched by the Saudi Ministry of Education. The goal is to change the mindset of Saudi teachers through immersive experiences in the U.S. K-12 schools and university academic culture so that they can participate as effective “change agents” in the transformation of Saudi schools. Our mixed-methods study examined the impact of the Khbrat program on Saudi teachers’ leadership, classroom experiences, and sociocultural levels; the findings inspire new directions for program design with key insights into teacher PD program evaluation. ItemThe effect of early enrollment in dual-language immersion programs on children’s English reading development: findings from a 5-year longitudinal study(International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 2022-05-30) Shen, Ye; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Fan; Barbieri, Christina Areizaga; Pasquarella, AdrianThe present study examined the effect of children’s enrollment in U.S. dual-language immersion (DLI) programs in first grade on English development across five years, using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2011 (ECLS-K:2011) database. Propensity score matching was used to create comparable groups of DLI and non-DLI students based on students’ kindergarten reading performance and a series of student-, family-, and school-level characteristics. Growth curve models demonstrate that first-grade DLI enrollment had a positive effect on children’s English reading growth from Grade 1 to 5. Children who enrolled in DLI experienced greater improvements by Grade 5. We also found that first-grade teacher judgment was related to children’s initial reading performance but not their reading growth. Implications related to DLI programs, teacher practices, and bilingual educational policies are discussed. ItemEffects of Pre-Collegiate Sport Specialization on Cognitive, Postural, and Psychological Functions: Findings from the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium(International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2022-02-18) Chou, Tsung-Yeh; Caccese, Jaclyn B.; Huang, Yu-Lun; Glutting, Joseph J.; Buckley, Thomas A.; Broglio, Steven P.; McAllister, Thomas W.; McCrea, Michael A.; Pasquina, Paul F.; Kaminski, Thomas W.Background: Early sport specialization has been associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries and unfavorable psychological outcomes; however, it is unknown whether sport specialization is associated with worse cognitive, postural, and psychological functions in first-year collegiate student-athletes. Methods: First-year collegiate multisport (MA) and single-sport (SA) student-athletes were identified using a pre-collegiate sport experience questionnaire. The cognitive, postural, and psychological functions were assessed by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC), Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), and Brief Symptom Inventory 18 (BSI-18). Results: MA student-athletes performed higher in cognitive outcomes (e.g., higher ImPACT visual memory composite scores [ß = 0.056, p < 0.001]), but had higher psychological distress (e.g., higher BSI-18 global severity index [ß = 0.057, p < 0.001]) and no difference in postural stability (p > 0.05) than SA student-athletes. Conclusions: This study indicated first-year collegiate athletes with a history of sport specialization demonstrate lower cognitive performance but decreased psychological distress and no differences in static postural stability as compared to their MA counterparts. Future studies should consider involving different health measures to better understand the influence of sport specialization on overall physical and mental health. ItemEffects of resistance training interventions on muscular strength in adults with intellectual disability: a systematic review and meta-analysis(Disability and Rehabilitation, 2021-04-17) Obrusnikova, Iva; Firkin, Cora J.; Cavalier, Albert R.; Suminski, Richard R.Purpose: Muscular strength is critical for adults with an intellectual disability (ID) to promote their mobility, cardiovascular capacity, and performance of daily living/recreational/vocational activities. This article reports the results of the first systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed clinical trials that evaluated the effects of resistance training (RT) interventions on muscular strength in adults with ID. Methods: The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020184905). The review focuses on clinical trials that recorded quantitative measures of maximum muscular strength. Eleven electronic databases were searched from their earliest available record up to May 2020. After screening 1996 search records, 11 clinical trials were reviewed. Results: The RT interventions, while heterogeneous, had an overall significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on muscular strength in adults with ID, ages 25–58 years. The findings were more significant and less heterogeneous for non-combined RT interventions than for interventions that combined RT exercises with aerobic or balance exercises. The TESTEX overall score was 8.3 ± 3.6. Conclusions: RT interventions (particularly when not combined with other exercises) are effective in promoting muscular strength in adults with ID. The limited number of studies and the low study quality scores indicate a potential risk of bias, which limits the interpretation of the findings and warrants further investigation. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: Muscular strength is critical for adults with an intellectual disability (ID) to promote their mobility, cardiovascular capacity, and performance of daily living/recreational/vocational activities. RT interventions are an effective means of improving muscular strength in adults with ID, especially when not combined with other forms of exercise. Testing and assessment protocols used in RT programs should be individualized for adults with ID to accommodate their characteristics and should be implemented under conditions similar to those experienced during the training regimen. It is important to implement familiarization sessions before carrying out muscular strength testing or initiating an RT program to ensure safety, accuracy, and effectiveness of the program for adults with ID. ItemEllen Schrecker. The Lost Promise: American Universities in the 1960s Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2021. 621pp.(Cambridge University Press, 2022-07-15) Hampel, Robert L.“My biggest challenge has been shaping all this into a coherent whole,” Ellen Schrecker admits (p. 8). “All this” includes 130 interviews, several dozen archival collections, many histories of individual schools, and an avalanche of articles and books on the tumultuous late 1960s. Her research is prodigious—there are 131 pages of endnotes—and the scope of the analysis extends beyond the 1960s as Schrecker explores the aftermath of that contentious decade. ItemEstablishing severity levels for patient-reported measures of functional communication, participation, and perceived cognitive function for adults with acquired cognitive and language disorders(Quality of Life Research, 2022-12-27) Cohen, Matthew L.; Harnish, Stacy M.; Lanzi, Alyssa M.; Brello, Jennifer; Hula, William D.; Victorson, David; Nandakumar, Ratna; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.Purpose: To empirically assign severity levels (e.g., mild, moderate) to four relatively new patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for adults with acquired cognitive/language disorders. They include the Communicative Participation Item Bank, the Aphasia Communication Outcome Measure, and Neuro-QoL’s item banks of Cognitive Function (v2.0) and Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities (v1.0). Method: We conducted 17 focus groups that comprised 22 adults with an acquired cognitive/language disorder from stroke, Parkinson’s disease, or traumatic brain injury; 30 care partners of an adult with an acquired cognitive/language disorder; and 42 speech-language pathologists who had experience assessing/treating individuals with those and other cognitive/language disorders. In a small, moderated focus-group format, participants completed “PROM-bookmarking” procedures: They discussed hypothetical vignettes based on PROM item responses about people with cognitive/language disorders and had to reach consensus regarding whether their symptoms/function should be categorized as within normal limits or mild, moderate, or severe challenges. Results: There was generally good agreement among the stakeholder groups about how to classify vignettes, particularly when they reflected very high or low functioning. People with aphasia described a larger range of functional communication challenges as “mild” compared to other stakeholder types. Based on a consensus across groups, we present severity levels for specific score ranges for each PROM. Conclusion: Standardized, stakeholder-informed severity levels that aid interpretation of PROM scores can help clinicians and researchers derive better clinical meaning from those scores, for example, by identifying important clinical windows of opportunity and assessing when symptoms have returned to a “normal” range. ItemEvoking Learning by Examples through Reducing Misconceptions and Highlighting Procedures(The Journal of Experimental Education, 2023-07-10) Barbieri, Christina Areizaga; Silla, Elena M.Prior research highlights a positive effect of incorrect worked examples on mathematics learning. Yet the mechanisms underlying these benefits are unclear. To investigate potential mechanisms of the benefits of various worked example types, we examined process data from a previously published classroom-based experiment. More specifically, we analyzed students’ explanations made while explaining worked examples in three varying example conditions as well as students’ problem-solving errors made when solving problems. These data operationalize two potential mechanisms: a reduction of misconceptions (i.e., fewer targeted conceptual errors), and an increase in principled algebra knowledge (i.e., explanations focusing on principles underlying procedures). Mediation analyses revealed both as important mechanisms of varying effects. A reduction of misconceptions explained greater benefits of all three worked example conditions, compared to a problem-solving control, on an algebra concepts posttest. More principled explanations of procedures explained the benefits of incorrect worked examples on problem-solving at posttest compared to the two other example conditions. These findings help explain differential findings in prior work by example type and may elucidate potential avenues for errorful instruction. ItemExamining a Coaching Routine to Support Teacher Learning(Investigations in Mathematics Learning, 2022-10-27) Gibbons, Lynsey; Okun, AdaMathematics specialists tasked with the responsibility of supporting teacher learning face both the opportunity and the challenge of transforming the organization of the school workplace to support educators’ collective, ongoing learning, which is not the norm in most school settings. In this study, we examine a coaching routine called Teacher Time Out (TTO), which was organically developed by a school-based mathematics coach and the teachers with whom she worked. Through the routine, coaches and teachers work through complex, in-the-moment pedagogical decision making while collectively facilitating mathematics discussions among students. The routine thus opens opportunities for educators to learn about ambitious teaching alongside their colleagues. We report findings from an analysis of 360 TTOs that occurred over three years of one coach’s work supporting a school-wide, multi-year instructional reform effort in mathematics teaching and learning. We found that the coaching routine fostered teachers’ collective inquiry into practice, as they engaged with the unpredictability of teaching during real-time instruction with students. We discuss the potential of this routine to support coaching as a lever for organizational reform, reshaping mathematics teaching across many classrooms.