Open Access Publications
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Open access publications by faculty, postdocs, and graduate students in the School of Education.
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- ItemA Culturally Responsive Disposition: How Professional Learning and Teachers’ Beliefs About and Self-Efficacy for Culturally Responsive Teaching Relate to Instruction(AERA Open, 2023-01-07) Comstock, Meghan; Litke, Erica; Hill, Kirsten Lee; Desimone, Laura M.Persistent social inequities in the United States demand attention to culturally responsive (CR) teaching, which requires a specific disposition toward students and teaching. Using survey data of secondary teachers (N = 417) in seven urban districts across the country engaging in equity-oriented professional learning (PL) initiatives, we examine the relationship between teachers’ beliefs about, self-efficacy for, and engagement in PL around CR teaching and their self-reported CR teaching practices. We find correlational evidence that teacher-reported self-efficacy with CR teaching and engagement in PL focused on CR teaching are associated with higher self-reported frequency of CR teaching. We also find that teachers who have beliefs aligned with CR teaching have a stronger relationship between their CR teaching self-efficacy and self-reported CR teaching practices. Finally, we find evidence that changes in CR teaching self-efficacy are associated with changes in self-reported CR teaching—suggesting that CR teaching self-efficacy may drive changes in CR teaching.
- ItemAlternative methods for interpreting Monte Carlo experiments(Communications in Statistics - Simulation and Computation, 2022-06-06) Collier, Zachary K.; Zhang, Haobai; Soyoye, OlusholaResearch methodologists typically use descriptive statistics and plots to report the findings of Monte Carlo experiments. But previous literature suggests that Monte Carlo results deserve careful analysis rather than relying on simple descriptive statistics and plots of results, given the complex data conditions in simulation studies. As an alternative, data mining methods can also help readers digest Monte Carlo experiments. Therefore, our paper uses data mining methods to provide two novel contributions. First, we use detailed descriptions and code to illustrate how to use two data mining methods to analyze results from Monte Carlo experiments. Second, we demonstrate how data mining methods can be used in conjunction with interpreting plots, performing analysis of variance tests, and calculating effect sizes. Our study raises the awareness that there are alternative methods to interpretation and serves as a guide to readers for explaining the importance of manipulated conditions in Monte Carlo experiments.
- ItemAn exploration of individual, job, and organizational characteristics associated with district research leaders' knowledge brokering work(Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2022-10-18) Shewchuk, Samantha Jo; Farley-Ripple, ElizabethThe role of district research leaders (DRLs) in central offices has emerged as a strategy for improving the creation, flow, and use of research knowledge in decision-making. However, there is limited information about the responsibilities, opportunities, and challenges inherent in these roles. This exploratory qualitative study features document analysis to examine the individual backgrounds, job demands, and organizational contexts of DRLs. The result of this study suggest that multiple pathways to the DRL role exist, but few include formal training in knowledge brokering. Further findings suggest that DRL jobs are complex and entail diverse tasks, but share a focus on research leadership and coordination, identifying and obtaining relevant research information, and facilitating evidence-informed change. Moreover, organizational contexts varied in supportiveness for knowledge brokering work. Overall, there was limited evidence of alignment across individual, job, and organizational characteristics, signaling an opportunity to better define and support those in DRL roles.
- ItemAutistic Young Adults, Parents, and Practitioners Expectations of the Transition to Adulthood(SAGE Publications, 2020) Curtiss, Sarah L.; Lee, Gloria K.; Chun, Jina; Lee, Heekyung; Kuo, Hung Jen; Ami-Narh, DanielleParental expectations are important for autistic youth during the transition to adulthood, but less is known about the expectations of other stakeholder groups. The current study examines similarities and differences in expectations among autistic youth, parents, and professionals. Data were collected through six focus groups with 24 participants (7 parents, 11 professionals, and 6 young adults on the autism spectrum). Thematic analysis was used to identify five themes: Normative Hopes, Living with Uncertainty , Mismatch of Reality and Expectations , Impairments Shape Expectations, and Services Dictate Expectations. Autistic youth expressed the most optimism for the transition to adulthood. All stakeholder groups touched on the tension between matching expectations with abilities; however, only professionals indicated a direct relation between expectations and abilities. Both parents and professionals highlighted the role of service availability in shaping expectations.
- ItemBackward transfer, the relationship between new learning and prior ways of reasoning, and action versus process views of linear functions(Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 2022-02-16) Hohensee, Charles; Willoughby, Laura; Gartland, SaraBackward transfer is defined as the influence that new learning has on individuals’ prior ways of reasoning. In this article, we report on an exploratory study that examined the influences that quadratic functions instruction in real classrooms had on students’ prior ways of reasoning about linear functions. Two algebra classes and their teachers at two comprehensive high schools served as the participants. Both schools drew from low-socioeconomic urban populations. The study involved paper-and-pencil assessments about linear functions that were administered before and after a four- to five-week instructional unit on quadratic functions. The teachers were instructed to teach the quadratic functions unit using their regular approach. Qualitative analysis revealed three kinds of backward transfer influences and each influence was related to a shift in how the students reasoned about functions in terms of an action or process view of functions. Additionally, features of the instruction in each class provided plausible explanations for the similarities and differences in backward transfer effects across the two classrooms. These results offer insights into backward transfer, the relationship between prior knowledge and new learning, aspects of reasoning about linear functions, and instructional approaches to teaching functions.
- ItemThe Birds and the Bees: Teaching Comprehensive Human Sexuality Education to Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities(SAGE Publications, 2018) Curtiss, Sarah L.This article describes a framework for providing human sexuality instruction to individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD). There are two main components in this framework: (1) goals for healthy sexual development throughout the lifespan and (2) dimensions of sexuality instruction. For each dimension of instruction, this article will outline specific strategies and resources that can be used by special educations. By following the recommendations in this framework, special educators will be more confident in teaching human sexuality to their students with IDD.
- ItemBuilding Capacity to Deliver Sex Education to Individuals with Autism(Springer, 2016) Curtiss, Sarah L.; Ebata, AaronProfessionals from a variety of fields are called upon to understand the needs of individuals with autism, advocate for services, and provide sexuality education, however, few have formal training. This study examined a process to build capacity for individuals with autism to receive human sexuality education through training professionals via a one day workshop and providing ongoing education online. To better understand both the context for professionals and the outcomes of the training we examined the reasons participants attended, their work climate surrounding issues of human sexuality education for individuals with autism, the extent to which the training changed instructional behavior and perceptions of readiness, and the differential effectiveness of follow-up education based on online delivery modality (Facebook update or email message). Participants were interested in attending a training on human sexuality education even if they had no intention to teach this topic. In general, the climate among attendees was positive for teaching human sexuality education both in terms of their own values and their perceptions of support by others. The workshop and follow-up online education were effective for increasing instructional behavior and feelings of readiness.
- ItemCurriculum and Coaching: Maximizing our Investments in Teaching(The Reading Teacher, 2021-09-14) Walpole, SharonThis article advocates for investments in curriculum and in coaching to support the work of teachers. It recommends coherent systems of professional learning to include active work with curriculum before it is used and support from coaches during use. To facilitate this work, the author provides a theory of change to move from curriculum and coaching to achievement, and a rubric for schools to use to document a set of enabling conditions and school-level norms that would facilitate the work of coaches.
- ItemDemocracy, dialogism, therapy, progressivism, anarchism, and other values in Martin Duberman’s innovative pedagogy(Dialogic Pedagogy, 2023-01-19) Matusov, EugeneMy essay aims to develop my authorial map-account of Martin Duberman’s various educational paradigms manifest in his experimental seminars at Princeton University, Hunter College, and Lehman College CUNY, 1966-1971 (and beyond) that I abstracted from his claims about his innovative educational teaching. I tried to develop a terrain of educational philosophical paradigms that shaped his goals, judgments, definitions of success, frustrations, and so on, and engage in a dialogic analysis of this terrain. His innovative pedagogy was driven by diverse and often conflicting educational philosophies involving democracy, dialogism, and therapy, among other values. I discuss the synergies and conflicts of these values in Duberman’s pedagogy.
- ItemDisseminating Resources Online for Teaching Sex Education to People with Developmental Disabilities(Sexuality and Disability, 2021-06-12) Curtiss, Sarah L.; Stoffers, MelissaSex education is important for individuals with developmental disabilities; however, it is difficult for educators to find resources to support them when teaching sex education. A website, asdsexed.org, was developed to disseminate sex education resources. Using analytic data from the website we explored how dissemination occurs online. We identified (1) how visitors were referred to the website; (2) what search terms were used to look for sex education resources; (3) what content was most frequently viewed; and (4) how visitors engaged with the content. Search engines were the top referrer. Variations on the phrase “body parts” were the most frequently recorded terms. Free lesson plans were the most viewed content. Privacy social stories were the most engaged with content. Online dissemination was a complex undertaking but did allow for potential sex educators to be connected with research-based resources.
- ItemEducational Change in Saudi Arabia: Insights from One USA/KSA Teacher Professional Development Collaborative(International Education Studies, 2021-09-26) Bentahar, Adil; Copeland, Kathleen D.; Stevens, Scott G.; Vukelich, Carol J.Teacher professional development (PD) programs ideally evaluate how professional learning experiences empower teachers to be effective change agents in their disciplines and communities. The Khbrat [“experiences” in Arabic] program is a year-long, global teacher PD initiative launched by the Saudi Ministry of Education. The goal is to change the mindset of Saudi teachers through immersive experiences in the U.S. K-12 schools and university academic culture so that they can participate as effective “change agents” in the transformation of Saudi schools. Our mixed-methods study examined the impact of the Khbrat program on Saudi teachers’ leadership, classroom experiences, and sociocultural levels; the findings inspire new directions for program design with key insights into teacher PD program evaluation.
- ItemThe effect of early enrollment in dual-language immersion programs on children’s English reading development: findings from a 5-year longitudinal study(International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 2022-05-30) Shen, Ye; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Fan; Barbieri, Christina Areizaga; Pasquarella, AdrianThe present study examined the effect of children’s enrollment in U.S. dual-language immersion (DLI) programs in first grade on English development across five years, using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2011 (ECLS-K:2011) database. Propensity score matching was used to create comparable groups of DLI and non-DLI students based on students’ kindergarten reading performance and a series of student-, family-, and school-level characteristics. Growth curve models demonstrate that first-grade DLI enrollment had a positive effect on children’s English reading growth from Grade 1 to 5. Children who enrolled in DLI experienced greater improvements by Grade 5. We also found that first-grade teacher judgment was related to children’s initial reading performance but not their reading growth. Implications related to DLI programs, teacher practices, and bilingual educational policies are discussed.
- ItemEffects of Pre-Collegiate Sport Specialization on Cognitive, Postural, and Psychological Functions: Findings from the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium(International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2022-02-18) Chou, Tsung-Yeh; Caccese, Jaclyn B.; Huang, Yu-Lun; Glutting, Joseph J.; Buckley, Thomas A.; Broglio, Steven P.; McAllister, Thomas W.; McCrea, Michael A.; Pasquina, Paul F.; Kaminski, Thomas W.Background: Early sport specialization has been associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries and unfavorable psychological outcomes; however, it is unknown whether sport specialization is associated with worse cognitive, postural, and psychological functions in first-year collegiate student-athletes. Methods: First-year collegiate multisport (MA) and single-sport (SA) student-athletes were identified using a pre-collegiate sport experience questionnaire. The cognitive, postural, and psychological functions were assessed by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC), Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), and Brief Symptom Inventory 18 (BSI-18). Results: MA student-athletes performed higher in cognitive outcomes (e.g., higher ImPACT visual memory composite scores [ß = 0.056, p < 0.001]), but had higher psychological distress (e.g., higher BSI-18 global severity index [ß = 0.057, p < 0.001]) and no difference in postural stability (p > 0.05) than SA student-athletes. Conclusions: This study indicated first-year collegiate athletes with a history of sport specialization demonstrate lower cognitive performance but decreased psychological distress and no differences in static postural stability as compared to their MA counterparts. Future studies should consider involving different health measures to better understand the influence of sport specialization on overall physical and mental health.
- ItemEffects of resistance training interventions on muscular strength in adults with intellectual disability: a systematic review and meta-analysis(Disability and Rehabilitation, 2021-04-17) Obrusnikova, Iva; Firkin, Cora J.; Cavalier, Albert R.; Suminski, Richard R.Purpose: Muscular strength is critical for adults with an intellectual disability (ID) to promote their mobility, cardiovascular capacity, and performance of daily living/recreational/vocational activities. This article reports the results of the first systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed clinical trials that evaluated the effects of resistance training (RT) interventions on muscular strength in adults with ID. Methods: The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020184905). The review focuses on clinical trials that recorded quantitative measures of maximum muscular strength. Eleven electronic databases were searched from their earliest available record up to May 2020. After screening 1996 search records, 11 clinical trials were reviewed. Results: The RT interventions, while heterogeneous, had an overall significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on muscular strength in adults with ID, ages 25–58 years. The findings were more significant and less heterogeneous for non-combined RT interventions than for interventions that combined RT exercises with aerobic or balance exercises. The TESTEX overall score was 8.3 ± 3.6. Conclusions: RT interventions (particularly when not combined with other exercises) are effective in promoting muscular strength in adults with ID. The limited number of studies and the low study quality scores indicate a potential risk of bias, which limits the interpretation of the findings and warrants further investigation. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: Muscular strength is critical for adults with an intellectual disability (ID) to promote their mobility, cardiovascular capacity, and performance of daily living/recreational/vocational activities. RT interventions are an effective means of improving muscular strength in adults with ID, especially when not combined with other forms of exercise. Testing and assessment protocols used in RT programs should be individualized for adults with ID to accommodate their characteristics and should be implemented under conditions similar to those experienced during the training regimen. It is important to implement familiarization sessions before carrying out muscular strength testing or initiating an RT program to ensure safety, accuracy, and effectiveness of the program for adults with ID.
- ItemEllen Schrecker. The Lost Promise: American Universities in the 1960s Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2021. 621pp.(Cambridge University Press, 2022-07-15) Hampel, Robert L.“My biggest challenge has been shaping all this into a coherent whole,” Ellen Schrecker admits (p. 8). “All this” includes 130 interviews, several dozen archival collections, many histories of individual schools, and an avalanche of articles and books on the tumultuous late 1960s. Her research is prodigious—there are 131 pages of endnotes—and the scope of the analysis extends beyond the 1960s as Schrecker explores the aftermath of that contentious decade.
- ItemExamining a Coaching Routine to Support Teacher Learning(Investigations in Mathematics Learning, 2022-10-27) Gibbons, Lynsey; Okun, AdaMathematics specialists tasked with the responsibility of supporting teacher learning face both the opportunity and the challenge of transforming the organization of the school workplace to support educators’ collective, ongoing learning, which is not the norm in most school settings. In this study, we examine a coaching routine called Teacher Time Out (TTO), which was organically developed by a school-based mathematics coach and the teachers with whom she worked. Through the routine, coaches and teachers work through complex, in-the-moment pedagogical decision making while collectively facilitating mathematics discussions among students. The routine thus opens opportunities for educators to learn about ambitious teaching alongside their colleagues. We report findings from an analysis of 360 TTOs that occurred over three years of one coach’s work supporting a school-wide, multi-year instructional reform effort in mathematics teaching and learning. We found that the coaching routine fostered teachers’ collective inquiry into practice, as they engaged with the unpredictability of teaching during real-time instruction with students. We discuss the potential of this routine to support coaching as a lever for organizational reform, reshaping mathematics teaching across many classrooms.
- ItemExamining the influence of the Get aHEAD Safely in Soccer™ program on head impact kinematics and neck strength in female youth soccer players(Research in Sports Medicine, 2022-05-24) Wahlquist, Victoria E.; Glutting, Joseph J.; Kaminski, Thomas W.The objective was to examine the efficacy of the Get aHEAD Safely in Soccer™ intervention on head impact kinematics and neck strength in female youth soccer players. The control group (CG) consisted of 13 players (age: 11.0 ± 0.4 yrs), while the experimental group (EG) consisted of 14 players (age: 10.6 ± 0.5 yrs). Head impact kinematics included peak linear acceleration (PLA), peak rotational acceleration (PRA), and peak rotational velocity (PRV). Pre- and post-season measures included strength measures of neck/torso flexion (NF/TF) and extension (NE/TE). Data were analysed using a multilevel linear model and ANOVA techniques. No differences in PLA, PRA, or PRV were observed between groups. The EG showed significant improvement in NF strength while the CG showed significant improvement in NE strength. Both groups significantly improved in TF pre- to post-season. The foundational strength components of the Get aHEAD Safely in Soccer program appear to show a benefit in youth soccer players beginning to learn the skill of purposeful heading.
- Item‘Growing from an acorn to an oak tree’: a thematic analysis of international students’ cross-cultural adjustment in the United States(Studies in Higher Education, 2022-11-24) Ammigan, Ravichandran; Veerasamy, Yovana S.; Cruz, Natalie I.Embarking on an educational journey overseas can be a rewarding, yet stressful experience for many international students. The transition to their new university life, which is not always well understood and supported by host institutions, is often accompanied by unique difficulties and challenges resulting from unfamiliarity with a new academic environment, social and cultural differences, and language barriers. This study examines the cross-cultural transition experiences of international students enrolled at a mid-sized university in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States (U.S.). Using qualitative methods, we collected and analyzed data from reflection essays written by 378 international students between 2013 and 2020. This yielded experiential themes surrounding cross-cultural adaptation, adjustment, and acculturation to new local norms and values while studying in the U.S., including during an unwelcoming political climate and a global health pandemic. Drawing on Ward and Kennedy's (1999) model of sociocultural adjustment, we found that the experiences of international students were often characterized by distinctive psychological and sociocultural components. We contextualized the diverse student perspectives and relied on student voices to guide implications and offer recommendations to university staff and administrators with a goal to strengthen support services, enhance experiences, and ensure the well-being and success of this community. To our knowledge, this study represents the first time that a large data set of narratives, through reflection essays, has been analyzed to better understand the cross-cultural encounters of international students, both inside and outside of the classroom.
- Item“I want the doctors to know that I am as bright as a candle”: Experiences with and Hopes for Doctor Interactions Among Malaysian Key Populations and People Living with HIV(AIDS and Behavior, 2022-12-06) Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Cox, Jon; Wong, Pui Li; Saifi, Rumana; Walters, Suzan; Azwa, Iskandar; Omar, Sharifah Faridah Syed; Collier, Zachary K.; Hassan, Asfarina Amir; Lim, Sin How; Wickersham, Jeffrey; Haddad, Marwan S.; Kamarulzaman, AdeebaStigma in healthcare settings is a pernicious barrier to HIV prevention and treatment in contexts with strong HIV-related structural stigma. Previous work has documented substantial stigma towards key populations and people living with HIV (PLWH) among Malaysian doctors. The perspectives of Malaysian key populations and PLWH, however, remain understudied. In 2021, 34 Malaysian participants representing key populations and PLWH engaged in a photovoice study designed to qualitatively explore their experiences with and hopes for doctor interactions. Many participants reported stigma from their doctors, perceiving that doctors view them as not normal, sinful, misguided, and incapable. Several emphasized that they wear figurative masks to conceal aspects of themselves from doctors. Yet, many also remain hopeful for constructive relationships with doctors. They want their doctors to know that they are bright, capable, kind, and valuable. Interventions are needed to address stigma among doctors working in contexts with strong structural stigma. Resumen El estigma en los ambientes de atención médica es una barrera perniciosa en la prevención y el tratamiento del VIH. Investigaciones anteriores han documentado un estigma sustancial hacia los grupos de población clave y las personas que viven con el VIH (PLWH por sus siglas en inglés) entre los médicos de Malasia. Sin embargo, las perspectivas de los grupos de población clave y las PLWH en Malasia siguen sin estudiarse. En 2021, 34 participantes que representaban los grupos de población clave y PLWH en Malasia participaron en un estudio de fotovoz diseñado para explorar cualitativamente sus experiencias y esperanzas en las interacciones con los médicos. Muchos participantes describieron el estigma de sus médicos, percibiendo que los médicos los ven como no normales, pecaminosos, equivocados e incapaces. Varios enfatizaron que usan máscaras figurativas para ocultar aspectos de ellos mismos a los médicos. Sin embargo, muchos también mantienen la esperanza de tener relaciones constructivas con los médicos. Quieren que sus médicos sepan que son inteligentes, capaces, amables y valiosos. Se necesitan intervenciones para abordar el estigma estructural entre los médicos que trabajan en la prevención y el tratamiento del VIH.
- ItemIdentifying the helpfulness of school climate: Skipping school, cheating on tests, and elements of school climate(Psychology in the Schools, 2022-04-06) Kupchik, Aaron; Highberger, James; Bear, GeorgePrior research demonstrates the importance of school climate in shaping student behavior but tells us less about which aspects of school climate matter. In this paper we consider how distinct elements of school climate relate to skipping school and cheating on tests. Using survey and administrative data from several statewide Delaware sources, we perform a series of random-intercept logistic regression models. We find that students in schools perceived to have a climate with high levels of structure and support are less likely to report cheating on tests. Yet we do not find a robust relationship between most climate measures and skipping school. School climate relates strongly to in-school deviant behavior but much less to school-related deviant behavior occurring outside of schools. By specifying what measures of climate do and do not relate to problematic student behaviors, our results sharpen our understandings of how school climate shapes student behaviors.
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