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ItemPainting in acrylic polymer emulsion base paints with special emphasis on underpainting techniques(University of Delaware, 200) Duff, Helen D. McKeeDuring the past decade a new medium for the painter has been introduced, the medium of pigments held by plastic rather than the familiar oil, water, or casein binders. This new medium would seem to presage a whole new development in painting because the binder (plastic) for the pigment can at the same time work as an adhesive, or as an agent for inclusions with which to build heavy and varied impasto effects which later can be carved and incised. Here is offered a new and exciting range of expermentation for the artist. ☐ The medium as paint handles very much like water color except that the paint does not flow quite as easily and the gesso surface does not absorb water. The paint film dries quickly, permitting a series of glazes to be built up without a long interval of waiting as is necessary in oil glazing. With the addition of white to the colors, the effect can be almost identical to gouache or some casein techniques. Oil paint may be applied on top of the plastic paint layer but never under it. ☐ However, it is the intermediate step possible in this medium that is of the greatest concern for this study. Paintings are worked on a rigid surface such as masonite, tempered hardboard, or plywood which has been coated with an opaque white liquid latex gesso. Before colors are used, an underpainting may be initiated using the polymer medium as an adhesive for a collage design, or by using a modeling paste of marble dust bound by an acrylic polymer emulsion. Additional materials may be mixed with this paste to create various textures or materials may be impressed into the paste leaving an imprint. ☐ The potentials inherent in the above underpainting techniques were the principle subject for experimentation for this thesis together with investigation as to the effects of the paints when applied to the various surfaces. There follows an illustrated record of the panels or painting together with conclusions reached after each of the three series of experiments. ItemDelaware's first labor party: a history of the Association of Working People of Newcastle County, 1829-1832(University of Delaware, 200) Dew, Thomas Roderick[Abstract shortened by cataloger:] The Association of Working People of Newcastle County was organized in the summer of 1829 ostensibly as an organization dedicated to the betterment of the laborer, but actually a local political party. […] ☐ The Association of Working People of Newcastle County lasted two and one-hald years. During that time, it put up candidates in three elections: the Wilmington borough election of May, 1830; the Delaware state election of October, 1830; and the Delaware election of October, 1931. […] ☐ The stated aims of the association, held in common with other Workingmen’s Movement groups, were the establishment of a system of free publica education; abolition of imprisonment for debt; passage of a mechanic’s lien law; reform of the election laws; simplification and codification of the laws; abolition of chartered monopolies such as banks; abolition of lotteries; and abolition of the militia system. […] ☐ On the non-political front, the Association of Working People of Newcastle County protested in vain the introduction of labor-saving machinery. […] ☐ The most active member of the association was George R. McFarlane, a Philadelphian by birth who came to Wilmington shortly before the association was organized and promptly became its secretary. […] McFarlane’s stay in Wilmington was relatively brief – he returned to Philadelphia after the state election of 1830. […] ☐ The other members of the association did not match McFarlane in zeal for the cause, and with his departure, the association began to decline. Two years after he left, it was dead. Its decline is partly traceable to the fact that it was never an association of the “real” working classes. […] ☐ The chief weakness of the association was its political orientation. Organized as a local political party with limited aims, it could not hope for lasting success against the rising tide of Jacksonian nationalism. […] ItemThe Wilmington merchant, 1775-1815(University of Delaware, 200) Farris, Sara GuertlerIn the years from 1775 to 1815 the community of Wilmington, Delaware, experienced a period of growth and commercial expansion carried on under the invigorating influences of a thriving. trade, an expanding flour-milling industry, and a vigorous and extensive maritime commerce. The Wilmington merchants who engaged in business in this age in which commerce dominated the economic life of America were largely responsible for the initial growth and development of the town in which they lived. The initiative and energy which they displayed in finding markets for the products of the Delaware area and in distributing the varied and sometimes exotic return cargoes were crucial stimuli in the metamorphosis which transformed Wilmington from "an upstart village lying on a Neighboring Creek," as a New castle minister termed it in 1750, into the "large town ,,, pleasantly situated on an eminence, commanding a view of every sail passing on the river," that it had become by 1795. ☐ The crest of Wilmington's importance as a commercial center was reached in the years from 1790 to 1807 when European wars stimulated a demand for American flour and provisions. Merchants and shipowners eagerly scanned the newspapers for news which might affect the course of their business. They sent cargoes to France, England, India, Java, Spain, China, and above all to the West Indies. Shipping such local products as flour, bread, beef, pork, cheese, and lumber, they brought back Irish linens; West Indian coffee, rum, molasses, and sugar; Indian cottons; Chinese tea, china, and silk; Eastern spices; and European wines. Wilmington thus served as a market center which drew produce to it for export and distributed imported goods over a wide area. Merchant families like the Hemphills, the Warners, and the Mendinhalls worked hand-in-hand with the Brooms, Shipleys, Tatnalls, and Leas of the Brandywine mills as shippers and commercial entrepreneurs in these years in which trade formed the lifeblood of Wilmington's economic life. ☐ In the early years of the nineteenth century, however, Wilmington underwent an economic transformation. By 1815 it was a young industrial center, "likely to become one of the most important manufacturing towns in the United States." Merchants, millers, and ocean ships no longer dominated the Wilmington scene. From 1807 to 1815 the community's commercial activity had declined as a result of the trade restraints imposed by the War of 1812 and by the hostility and tension leading up to the conflict. Manufacturing, on the other hand, was stimulated by the embargoes which temporarily removed foreign competition and by the tariff restrictions which followed the war. Wilmington became a center for the manufacture of gunpowder, paper, leather, and textiles, and continued to be an important flour-milling community. ☐ Although he had now lost his former pre-eminence to the industrialist, the merchant had played a leading role in the development of Wilmington. A fortunate combination of mills, markets, and transportation gave Wilmington the potential for growth, but it was the entreprenurial skill of its merchants and millers that helped it to realize the promise of its location. These early citizens laid the foundations for its future importance as an industrial city. ItemSkin assessment in primary care: skin cancer & people of color(University of Delaware, 0202) Boyd, Sheavone D.Problem and Purpose: This project examined the risk for people of color to have increased morbidity and mortality secondary to skin cancer despite its lower incidence in this population, how that correlates to late detection, and what implications exist. Skin assessment is a quick, easy and feasible examination that can lead to the early detection of skin lesions suspicious for cancer and has the potential to improve clinical outcomes. Despite being the key to early detection of skin cancer, comprehensive skin examination remains an extremely overlooked aspect of primary care. This practice change project aimed to increase the rate of total body skin assessment in primary care and promote referral to dermatology when indicated to improve early detection. ☐ Methods: Participants (n= 114) received total body skin examinations, as part of their annual wellness visit, by a nurse practitioner at a robust primary care office in Wilmington, Delaware. By way of chart reviews, the findings of these assessments were collected and analyzed to determine patient demographics, whether there was a patient-reported skin concern, whether suspicious lesions were detected, and if a referral to dermatology was made when indicated. ☐ Results: As a result of this practice change project there was an 83% increase in skin assessment. Additional results found that two patients required further treatment and/or referral, and 66% of the patients with positive skin assessments did not report a skin abnormality in their chief complaints, and thus, would not have received the skin assessment that led to a diagnosis that required treatment, per usual practice. There was also a 100% increase in the delivery of culturally sensitive patient education regarding skin cancer prevention and detection. ☐ Conclusion: This project has identified a gap in care that can easily be addressed. While lesions suspicious for skin cancer were not found as a result of this project, it remains clear that comprehensive skin assessment is, often, a missed opportunity to provide preventive care. ☐ Keywords: “total body skin exam,” “skin cancer,” “primary care,” “early detection" ItemDelaware and its canal: the early history of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, 1769-1829(University of Delaware, 1928) Gray, Ralph D.The peninsula separating the Chesapeake and Delaware bays is indented with numerous streams. A dividing ridge, approximately eighty feet in height at its summit, causes them either to flow eastward into the Delaware or westward into the Chesapeake. The headwaters of these streams feeding the two bays are within a few thousand yards of each other, a fact which suggested at an early date a project to connect by an artificial waterway the Chesapeake and Delaware bays. The eighteenth century visionaries of this plan were succeeded in the nineteenth century by active proponents, such as Joshua Gilpin, who labored to achieve the waterway. ☐ At no time was the project far removed from the minds of the farsighted after 1769. In 1803 a company, jointly chartered by Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania, was finally formed which began construction the following year on a Chesapeake and Delaware canal to run from the Elk River in Maryland to the Christina River in Delaware. The attempt soon proved abortive when money sufficient to complete the canal could not be obtained. The canal company lay dormant for eighteen years. Stimulated in 1821 by the desire of Philadelphia merchants for an all-water route to Pennsylvania’s interior and by New York’s great example of canal construction, the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Company was reorganized and refinanced in 1822-1823. The canal, relocated and enlarged, was pushed to a successful completion in 1829. ☐ When the canal line was placed to the south of its original location near Wilmington and New Castle, most of Delaware’s support of the waterway was alienated. Although opinion in the state had always been divided, strong encouragement for the earlier canal route was found in northern New Castle County, especially among Wilmington merchants and industrialists. They opposed the new location, however, for two basic reasons. First, the relocation was seen merely as a jealous gesture towards Wilmington on the part or the Philadelphians who had gained the direction of the canal company. Secondly, it was sincerely believed to be physically impossible to dig a lasting canal through the selected region. ☐ Difficulties met in the construction of the canal lend weight to the force and sincerity of Delaware’s objections to the lower route. Nevertheless, perseverance, aid from federal and state treasuries, and engineering skill enabled the canal builders to achieve what in its day was considered a monumental engineering feat. The canal, whose grand dimensions made it an immediate and notable tourist attraction, proved useful to bay navigation and national defense. A series of misfortunes prevented the waterway from becoming a paying business, but its usefulness cannot be doubted. In 1919 the largest stockholder in the company, the United States Government, purchased the canal property and franchises. Subsequently widened and deepened, the waterway now plays a vital role in the inland navigation of the United States. ItemThe development of local government in Delaware, 1638-1682(University of Delaware, 1935) De Valinger, Leon ItemRelations between the Continental Congress and the Delaware legislature, 1776-1789(University of Delaware, 1941) Munroe, John A.“The Relations between the Continental Congress and the Delaware Legislature, 1776-1789” are of particular interest to the historian, because during these years Delaware and the twelve other former colonies were practically independent states loosely joined in a continental league, regulated, after 1781, by the Articles of Confederation. The governing body of this league of states was the Continental Congress, to which they all sent delegates and in which each state was entitled to one vote. In such a loose confederation, Congress was largely dependent upon the state legislatures for compliance with its various recommendations and it is this relationship applied to one state only that is the subject of this paper. ☐ In regard to politics, the first topic to be considered, one of the most difficult problems confronting the Delaware legislature was the maintenance of a steady representation in Congress. The refusal of the ablest leaders to serve as delegates often led to the choice of politicians of mediocre ability. The selection of non-resident delegates solved the problem of attendance but shamed the state. Throughout the period, conflict between radicals and conservatives, affected the composition of delegations, there being some evidence that insecurity of tenure increased the unwillingness of men of ability to accept an annual appointment. ☐ The financial relations of the Delaware legislature and the Continental Congress may be variously interpreted, according to the types of Congressional requisitions that are considered. On the whole, Delaware gave a fair degree of financial support to the central government. ☐ To the requests of Congress for a regular income through control of imposts and supplementary funds, Delaware was entirely compliant. To the military requisitions of Congress, Delaware’s response was generally satisfactory except as far as the militia was concerned. Delaware’s treatment of the disaffected was was lighter and more humane than that of most of the states, but Congress’ early rears of insurrection were eventually calmed through the vigorous patriotic action of the state. ☐ All in all, the only candid summary seems to be that the Delaware legislature rendered Congress a fair amount of support. The General Assembly was usually desirous of cooperation with Congress, but its cooperation was hindered by partisan politics and by the frequent lack of representatives in Congress who might have explained its actions to that body. ItemDevelopment of local government in Delaware, 1776-1831(University of Delaware, 1941) Hitchens, Emory Dallas ItemThe German element in Wilmington from 1850 to 1914(University of Delaware, 1948) Abeles, Julius Emil ItemCecil County, Maryland, in the Civil War(University of Delaware, 1950) Lord, John WesleyCecil County, Maryland, being a "border county" in a “border state” during the Civil War, was faced with a most important choice between loyalty and secession. In fact, during the succeeding years of the struggle, there was never a time when secession was not a possibility in the minds of some Cecil County citizens. This problem, along with the problem of slavery and emancipation, played havoc with the political organization of the county and state before it was finally settled by the Constitution of 1864. ☐ As was expected, the county (along with the state) remained in the Union. It was obliged to do so because of its geographical location, its economic connections with the North, and its strong conservative tradition of absolute fidelity to the Constitution and the Union. Yet, despite Union successes on the field of battle. the early enthusiasm which had been displayed for the Union cause in Cecil County showed a perceptible tendency to dwindle in the later years or the conflict. Further drafts were necessary and unpopular. It gradually became a point of pride for a worthy Union-loving citizen of Elkton or Port Deposit to procure some Irishman or Negro to act as a substitute for him so he could be free to attend the political meetings and complain about the lax prosecution of the War. ☐ Nevertheless., throughout the conflict, many Cecil Countians demonstrated at home and on the field of battle their sincere devotion to the cause of freedom. This county led the state in volunteers, according to population, and through their activities on the home front clearly showed their strong support of the war effort. ☐ Although the county was loyal to the cause of the Union, much bitterness was displayed. During the course of the struggle, many incidents and other malicious acts gave evidence of this feeling. Many arrests were made of Cecil County citizens, showing that a strong and sincere feeling tor the Confederacy existed. However, in 1865, it was obvious that all welcomed the end of the conflict. ☐ In politics, the Democratic party in Cecil County and state was soundly defeated in the elections of 1861. But, this party 1n the local and state elections of 1863-1864 made a supreme effort to recover their power. Although limited in their struggle for recovery, due to military interference, the Democrats in the election of 1864 indicated that their party could shake and possibly break the Union or Republican control. ☐ It has been necessary in painting a true picture of Cecil County's part in the conflict to give numerous incidents which indicated the divided feeling that existed. These incidents, along with their interpretations, enable the reader to better understand this period in the history of Cecil County. ☐ The ”Irrepressible Conflict" which came brought the new and old into a head-on collision, but the old established institutions and customs continued for some time in spite of the rising tide of reform and change. ItemCrime and punishment in the Delaware River area, 1740-1790, as reported in the Philadelphia newspapers(University of Delaware, 1951) Bailor, Richard PaulThis study is concerned with crime and its punishment in the colonies along the Delaware during the period from 1740-1790. The criminal code which was-in force during this period was the harsh English criminal law. A long list, of crimes were designated as capital offenses. The list included the various degrees of treason, murder, manslaughter by stabbing, serious maiming, highway robbery, burglary, arson, sodomy, buggery, rape, concealing the death of a bastard child, advising the killing such a child, and witchcraft. Later in the period counterfeiting was added to the list. Offenses which were not deemed capital were punished generally with some form or corporal punishment. Whipping, branding and confinement in the stocks and pillory were among the more popular forms of corporal punishment administered. Imprisonment as a method of punishment was almost totally absent. The prison system as we know it today did not exist. ☐ Offenses against property and property rights oonstituted the overwhelming majority of crimes committed. In this category of offenses burglary was the most frequently committed, and robbery was the next most frequent offense. While serious offenses against the person were less frequent than property offenses, they were outstanding in the public mind and notable for the extreme cruelty involved. ☐ In an examination of some of the major crimes, it was found that 105 persons were sentenced to death for burglary but of this number only 37 were actually reported executed. For robbery, twenty were given the death sentence but only 17 of these suffered death. Out of 19 persons sentenced to death for counterfeiting, only eleven paid the full penalty. Four persons were sentenced to death for arson but not one executed. In considering offenses against the person a similar trend was found to exist. Out of 76 persons found guilty of murder and sentenced to death only 54 were reported executed. Only four women out of the ten sentenced to death for infanticide were actually executed. ☐ In all of these major offenses not nearly all persons under the death sentence were actually reported as executed. Of the rest, some were reprieved or pardoned, or perhaps escaped. From the foregoing information, it may be stated that while the criminal code along the Delaware was very harsh from our point of view, it was not quite as harsh as it would seem and it definitely was tempered by mercy. The large number of persons who were either reprieved, pardoned or banished indicates that colonial authorities were reluctant to enforce the harsh provisions of the criminal code to the full extent. ☐ It has been extremely difficult to establish any definite trends or patterns or any significant growth in criminal tendencies when crime as a whole is.considered. Certain groups or offenses such as those against public morals, against public peace and justice, and against the person were not frequent enough to make it possible to establish any definite trend for these crimes. However, it is possible, by using the two most frequent crimes., robbery and burglary, to note a definite trend in these crimes. These two offenses occurred in sufficient numbers to make it possible to establish a trend in criminal tendencies. From 1740 to 1790 there was a steady increase in the number of robberies and burglaries. Not only did these crimes increase. in frequency as the period progressed, but the number of persons sentenced to death and executed. for these offenses steadily increased. From this information it would seem that there was a definite increase in criminal tendencies as far as these two property offenses are concerned. However, such an inferenoe should not be made without some interpretation of what is implied. It should be noted that the population along the Delaware was steadily increasing throughout the whole period. Also, there was constant influx of indentured servants coming into·these colonies. While · most of these servants were not criminally inclined, a considerable number were given to acts of violence and they helped to swell the class of undesirables. ☐ An attempt was made to subject the Indian impartially to the white man's laws. However, there is a definite discrimination against the Negro, in severity of punishment. ItemThe organization of the Democratic Party in New Castle County(University of Delaware, 1951) Pollari, Wayne JohnThe purpose of this paper is to study the organization of a political party at the county level in order to gain a complete picture of both the formal and actual working arrangements, and to establish who controls the organization and how this control is maintained. The study will be concentrated on one party in order to learn as much as possible about the informal behind-the-scene activities. This type of research requires personal contacts within the party with both workers and leaders. ☐ The importance of the county unit in our two major political organizations is readily conceded by political observers; despite this fact it has been almost completely ignored. An intensive study is called for. ItemA history of the yellow fever epidemics in Wilmington, 1793-1798-1802(University of Delaware, 1952) Gerhard, James Calvin ItemDevelopment of Methodism in Delaware, 1739-1830(University of Delaware, 1956) Herson, Jane McClellanThere were three factors which combined to make Delaware the Garden of Methodism in the years before 1830. The phenomenal success of the Methodists in the state can be traced to an exceptional leader, inspired native preachers, and waiting congregations. ☐ Francis Asbury was the leader who elected to stand by the infant societies when Wesley’s missionaries and most of the Anglican clergy returned to England on the eve of the Revolution. Asbury found influential friends in Kent County who sheltered and encouraged him during two years of forced seclusion in the Delaware State. His fame rests on his ability to organize and administer the independent church which evolved after the separation from England. By an industrious life and a holy example, Francis Asbury developed the Methodist Church not only in Delaware but through the length of the new country. ☐ Catching inspiration from such a leader, a group of native preachers developed. For the most part they were poorly educated, but their sincerity in spreading John Wesley’s doctrines could not be questioned. Delaware heard the best of these early pioneers as they rode the circuits assigned to them. ☐ Leader and preachers found, in Delaware, congregations anxious for their message. People who had rarely heard a minister gathered in great crowds at the feet of men who preached an ardent and effective evangelism. Salvation was held out to all who would follow the simple rules. Social class lines disappeared at the campmeetings, where in services noted for their freedom and warmth, Methodists worked out their own salvation and aided others in finding theirs. The success of the Methodist Church, illustrated by its thousands of converts and some sixty-seven chapels and churches built in Delaware by 1830, was the fulfillment of Bishop Asbury’s Dream. ItemThe Brandywine mills, 1742-1815(University of Delaware, 1956) Welsh, Peter CorbettIn 1740, Oliver Canby moved from Bucks County, Pennsylvania, to the newly chartered town of Wilmington in Delaware. Oliver Canby, like many others who came to Wilmington, was a Quaker and as a member of the Society of Friends he had acquired early in life a useful trade or craft. Canby was a millwright by profession and in less than 15 years after coming to Wilmington he had gained, besides several promising mill seats, the control of important water rights on the Brandywine. During this period (1742-1755) Canby built the first mill of size or consequence on Brandywine Creek. The Canby Mill began the history of the merchant flour industry in this area known as the Brandywine Mills. ☐ The initial work of Oliver Canby was followed by that of Thomas Shipley who, in less than ten years after Canby's death (1755), transformed the flour mills on the lower Brandywine from custom mills to merchant enterprises. This was accomplished by building large mills with overshot wheels below the last falls of the stream. These mills were built on the south bank of the creek where, for the first time, they could begin to make full use of the water power so readily available. Even more important than power was the fact that these new mills were at tidewater; therefore they were convenient to ocean navigation by way of the Christina and Delaware Rivers. Similar mills were built on the north side of the stream in the 1770's. The development of this area was mainly due to the resourcefulness of Joseph Tatnall who is correctly thought of as Delaware's first great industrialist. ☐ Prior to the revolution the energy of three men -- Oliver Canby, Thomas Shipley and Joseph Tattnall -- had given impetus to the building of eight tidewater mills on the Brandywine. There were four mills on each side of the stream in this period and they ground the grist brought from the rich wheat fields of Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. These meals were located in the heart of America's first extensive wheat belt and we're readily accessible to the wheat growers of the middle colonies via river, road and ocean. The Brandywine millers, during the Revolution, the Confederation and the early Republic, expanded the business that had been founded in the colonial period. After the Revolution these mills produced flour for domestic and foreign consumption and provided a stimulus for Wilmington's prosperous economic and commercial life. ☐ The Brandywine Mills between 1770 and 1815 increased in number from eight to fourteen merchant mills, all tightly clustered about the tidal basin of Brandywine Creek. It was during this period that Oliver Evans introduced the idea of automation to flour mill machinery; and subsequently the mills at Brandywine were mechanized. These mills, despite, mechanization, provided work for hundreds of individuals including millers millwrights, coopers, blacksmiths and shallopmen. By the 1790’s, mills at Brandywine annually ground 300,000 to 100,000 bushels of wheat. Every year local merchants shipped thousands of barrels of Brandywine flour to the four corners of the globe and the Quaker millers reaped a return of a half million dollars in profits from their mill operations. The Brandywine Mills were, in every sense, a large scale enterprise and their history is the story of the industry that preceded du Pont as the industrial giant on Brandywine Creek. This story “fully written out … would afford a complete picture of the rise of the milling interest in the United States. ItemQuakers in Delaware, 1672-1872(University of Delaware, 1957) Lindell, Alice JaquetteQuaker colonists in Delaware have exerted an influence on the state in many ways. After the days of Penn this influence was not as discernible in the political field as it was in the development of industrial prosperity and the advancement of education and social welfare. Since the greatest concentration of Quakers was around Wilmington, it is in this area that we can most easily trace their actions. But each of the counties had at least a few members of The Society of Friends. ☐ Quaker influence is seen in the prosperity of the state and in the advantages enjoyed by individuals. The Quakers were a hard working, thrifty people, with a great deal of business ability coupled with a high regard for the dignity of the individual. Their interest in the welfare of others as an important factor in the progress of social reform, public welfare and education. ☐ Quakers were successful farmers, millers, merchants, and manufacturers. They used their wealth to improve general social conditions and to eliminate the causes of distress. They felt it a Christian duty to help the poor and to provide education for all, without regard to race, color, or condition of servitude. They attempted to have a just and merciful penal code established. The abolition of seemed to them an absolute necessity. Nowhere is there influence so easily discernible as the history of the freeing of the Negro in Delaware. ItemVoting trends in Wilmington, Delaware, 1926-1954(University of Delaware, 1957) Johnson, Donald SextonThe City of Willington, Delaware. has been returning Democratic majorities in recent years in general elections while in the municipal elections the Republicans have had no trouble in electing their candidates to the city offices. In recognition of these facts, the 1955 Democratic General Assembly passed, over the Governor’s veto, a series of bills affecting the municipal elections. The date of the municipal election was changed to coincide with the biennial general elections and councilmen were to be elected from the city at large instead of from the separate wards. ☐ An analysis of the elections in Wilmington from 1926 to 1954 indicated that there was a central tendency toward increasing Democratic percentages in general elections but revealed no tendency, but rather a stable situation insofar as municipal elections were concerned. Several wards show close relationships between general and municipal elections which was not evident in the city. In other wards no relationship is apparent, even to the point of the lines of regression sloping in different directions. ☐ Comparing elections with the preceding one of the same class, a higher or lower Democratic percentage in a general election was followed by a similar reaction in the Democratic percentage in the municipal election held the next year. ☐ The vote in Wilmington generally followed accepted participation principles. ItemCorrelation of sieve plate efficiency as a function of operating variables(University of Delaware, 1958) Wolf, Herbert OttoThe effects of three operating variables; liquid rate, outlet weir height, and gas rate, on overall plate efficiency on a sieve plat have been studied, using the system ammonia-air-water. Ammonia was absorbed from air into water, using a single 24-in. diameter tray which had a perforated area of 0.2150 square feet. The perforations consisted of 2,534 1/8-in. diameter holes on 3/8-in equilateral triangular centers and provided a free area equal to 7.69% of the superficial tower free area. The superficial tower free area (2.795 ft. sq.) is defined as the tower internal area less the area of the segmental inlet water down-comer. Liquid rates ranged from 1,740 to 10,700 lbs. per (hr.)(ft. sq.); gas rates ranged from 860 to 1810 lbs. per (hr.)(ft. sq.); and weir heights ranged from zero to 4.70 inches. The gas and liquid rates reported in this thesis are calculated on the same basis as the plate free area calculation, i.e., using the superficial tower free area as defined above in the calculation of column free area. ☐ Murphree plate efficiencies from 60.0% to 94.0% were observed. From these data and analysis of the statistical program, a general correlation has been computed to define the relationship of Murphree plate efficiency to the three operating variables. ☐ The data and statistically derived expression show that plate efficiency can be increased by increasing the liquid rate and/or by increasing the outlet weir height. Increasing weir height proved to have the greatest effect on efficiency up to about 3.7 inches; at the highest height, 4.7 inches, it was noted that efficiency did not increase as one would predict from the derived efficiency equation. This run points to the limit of use of the equation to regions of stable plate operation. ItemJoshua Gilpin, Esq., Kentmere, Delaware: the life and writings of a country gentleman(University of Delaware, 1959) Lazarus, Myron L.Joshua Gilpin (1765-1841) was a miller of fine quality paper on the shores of the Brandywine River near Wilmington, Delaware. He lived in the tradition, prevalent in Philadelphia, or the English country gentleman, whose leisure allowed him time for the arts, writing, extensive travel and public service. Gilpin was a business leader of his community and knew many of the important men of the era in and out of Delaware. A biography of Joshua Gilpin describes Delaware business of the early 19th century and presents a picture of a country gentleman in the Brandywine area. ☐ The family of Joshua Gilpin can be traced to the days of William the Conqueror. In the 13th century the family patriarch, Richard de Guylpin, was given The estate of Kentmere in northern England for services to the crown. In England the Gilpins were leaders in politics, the military, the arts and the church. Joseph, an English Quaker, in 1696 landed at New Castle, Delaware, and settled on land in Pennsylvania inherited by his wife. From Joseph the Gilpin family in America is descended, including Joshua's illustrious father, Thomas Gilpin. This businessman was an example of the early Quaker gentry of Philadelphia and was one of the leading "amateur scientists" in the country, whose interest in science led him to friendship with Benjamin Franklin. Because of his independence of mind and non-violence beliefs as a Quaker, Thomas, during the Revolutionary War, was exiled to Virginia where he became ill and died. ☐ As a young man Joshua Gilpin had an interest in a mercantile business (inherited from his father) with his relatives, the Fishers, in Philadelphia; and he retained an interest in Joshua Fisher and Co. even during the operation of the paper mill. Throughout his life Gilpin bought, sold and rented property in Pennsylvania and Delaware. There were flour and cotton mills in which he also invested. During his residence in Delaware, Gilpin, like other millers on the Brandywine, was a "general merchant,” buying grain in Delaware and Maryland and selling it in the markets of Philadelphia. ☐ Similar to other Quaker merchants, Gilpin, having inherited money and an old English name, followed the tradition of the English landed gentry. (Since he lived in England for twelve years of his life he probably came closer to that tradition than most Americans.) Early in his life he lived among Quaker society in Philadelphia. At the turn of the century he lived the life of a country gentleman at his home called Kentmere, which was situated near the mill site overlooking the Brandywine River. The area still retains the name Kentmere. There he managed the mill and other business interests and raised a family, some of whom became better known than their rather. ☐ The eldest son, Henry D. Gilpin, became the United States Attorney General during the Van Buren administration. Another son, William, was appointed the first governor of the Colorado Territory by Lincoln. ☐ Gilpin's home, Kentmere, was the stopping place for travelers, business people, politicians, intellectuals -- all friends of the miller. Among Gilpin's acquaintances of local fame were E. I. duPont, Thomas Rodney, Louis McLane and John Dickinson. Gilpin knew such national figures as Benjamin Latrobe, Benjamin West, Benjamin Franklin, and Presidents Washington, Jackson and Yan Buren. ☐ Joshua himself had a variety of interests, which have been noted in his letters, family papers and journals of his many travels in the United States and Europe. Gilpin did a considerable amount of creative writing. He was an amateur historian. As was the custom of his class in that day, he wrote poetry, which displays sensitivity and some talent. His journals show an interest in such topics as science, farming, art, economics, geology, politics, history, manufacture, ad infinitum. Typical of the merchant gentry, Gilpin had an interest in community affairs. The spark for the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal which connects the Delaware River with the Chesapeake Bay was started by his father. Joshua himself was one of the most important figures associated with the development of the Canal. He devoted time and money to the Wilmington Academy. Though he himself never obtained public office, he was closely informed by leading politicians of the day and passed this interest in politics on to his son, Henry. As a miller and an employer, he retained an artisan's interest in his product and in the welfare of his employees. At various times he spoke for Delaware in answering inquiries from the federal government concerning manufacturing, tariff and canals. ☐ Gilpin had a "gentleman's" appreciation of leisure and pleasure, but he was a Quaker with that sect's characteristics of simplicity and moderation. He was at once a practical man of the market place and a man of artistic tastes. He was, what is rare today, a businessman and litterateur. ItemJacob Eichholtz, 1776-1842: Pennsylvania portraitist(University of Delaware, 1960) Milley, John CalvinThe Lancastrian tinsmith and self-taught artist, Jacob Eichholtz, entered the arena of Pennsylvania portraiture on a full-time basis in 1813. Contact with Thomas Sully in 1809, and with Gilbert Stuart in 1811, had supplied him with the technical rudiments of his art, but the lasting influence on his work came as a result of the artist's long and laborious study of the Discourses of Sir Joshua Reynolds, and the Works of Sir Anton Raphael Mengs. ☐ The practicality of Eichholtz' Pennsylvania-German heritage left an indelible stamp on both his nature and his art. His sense of filial devotion and the sacrifices it entailed, gave restrictions to the geographical area within which he could work, and necessitated a relentless practice of portraiture. He aspired to the "higher" branches of his art. Persisting responsibilities, and a patronage which commissioned only portraits, precluded the fruition of these ambitions, but did not frustrate his attempts to communicate ideals of "Beauty" in portraiture. ☐ Eichholtz' art followed a natural pattern of development -- from the simple to the complex in composition -- from the complex to the simple in technique. From a corpus of approximately one hundred and thirty-five documented paintings of known location, this development has been divided into the following stylistic periods: ( 1) Early Period, c. 1806- 1810, (2) Classical Period, 1811-1822, (3) Transitional Period, 1823-1830, (4) Period of Technical Proficiency, 1831- 1842. ☐ It is significant that these periods should coincide roughly with incidents of importance in the artist's personal life. In Eichholtz' work is to be found the naiveté of a craftsman practising a "Fine Art", the struggles for attainment of success, and the self-assurance which success brings. And within the work of this one artist is to be found a summation of the evolution in portraiture from eighteenth century traditions to those of the early nineteenth century in America.