# Open Access Publications

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Open access publications by faculty, postdocs, and graduate students in the Department of Mathematical Sciences

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- ItemOrder Two Superconvergence of the CDG Finite Elements on Triangular and Tetrahedral Meshes(CSIAM Transactions on Applied Mathematics, 2023-02) Ye, Xiu; Zhang, ShangyouIt is known that discontinuous finite element methods use more unknown variables but have the same convergence rate comparing to their continuous counterpart. In this paper, a novel conforming discontinuous Galerkin (CDG) finite element method is introduced for Poisson equation using discontinuous Pk elements on triangular and tetrahedral meshes. Our new CDG method maximizes the potential of discontinuous Pk element in order to improve the convergence rate. Superconvergence of order two for the CDG finite element solution is proved in an energy norm and in the L2 norm. A local post-process is defined which lifts a Pk CDG solution to a discontinuous Pk+2 solution. It is proved that the lifted Pk+2 solution converges at the optimal order. The numerical tests confirm the theoretic findings. Numerical comparison is provided in 2D and 3D, showing the Pk CDG finite element is as good as the Pk+2 continuous Galerkin finite element.
- ItemSelf-Assembly, Self-Folding, and Origami: Comparative Design Principles(Biomimetics, 2022-12-27) Jungck, John R.; Brittain, Stephen; Plante, Donald; Flynn, JamesSelf-assembly is usually considered a parallel process while self-folding and origami are usually considered to be serial processes. We believe that these distinctions do not hold in actual experiments. Based upon our experience with 4D printing, we have developed three additional hybrid classes: (1) templated-assisted (tethered) self-assembly: e.g., when RNA is bound to viral capsomeres, the subunits are constricted in their interactions to have aspects of self-folding as well; (2) self-folding can depend upon interactions with the environment; for example, a protein synthesized on a ribosome will fold as soon as peptides enter the intracellular environment in a serial process whereas if denatured complete proteins are put into solution, parallel folding can occur simultaneously; and, (3) in turbulent environments, chaotic conditions continuously alternate processes. We have examined the 43,380 Dürer nets of dodecahedra and 43,380 Dürer nets of icosahedra and their corresponding duals: Schlegel diagrams. In order to better understand models of self-assembly of viral capsids, we have used both geometric (radius of gyration, convex hulls, angles) and topological (vertex connections, leaves, spanning trees, cutting trees, and degree distributions) perspectives to develop design principles for 4D printing experiments. Which configurations fold most rapidly? Which configurations lead to complete polyhedra most of the time? By using Hamiltonian circuits of the vertices of Dürer nets and Eulerian paths of cutting trees of polyhedra unto Schlegel diagrams, we have been able to develop a systematic sampling procedure to explore the 86,760 configurations, models of a T1 viral capsid with 60 subunits and to test alternatives with 4D printing experiments, use of MagformsTM, and origami models to demonstrate via movies the five processes described above.
- ItemA Closed-Form EVSI Expression for a Multinomial Data-Generating Process(Decision Analysis, 2022-11-23) Fleischhacker, Adam; Fok, Pak-Wing; Madiman, Mokshay; Wu, NanThis paper derives analytic expressions for the expected value of sample information (EVSI), the expected value of distribution information, and the optimal sample size when data consists of independent draws from a bounded sequence of integers. Because of the challenges of creating tractable EVSI expressions, most existing work valuing data does so in one of three ways: (1) analytically through closed-form expressions on the upper bound of the value of data, (2) calculating the expected value of data using numerical comparisons of decisions made using simulated data to optimal decisions for which the underlying data distribution is known, or (3) using variance reduction as proxy for the uncertainty reduction that accompanies more data. For the very flexible case of modeling integer-valued observations using a multinomial data-generating process with Dirichlet prior, this paper develops expressions that (1) generalize existing beta-binomial computations, (2) do not require prior knowledge of some underlying “true” distribution, and (3) can be computed prior to the collection of any sample data.
- ItemTwo-order superconvergence for a weak Galerkin method on rectangular and cuboid grids(Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations, 2022-09-22) Wang, Junping; Wang, Xiaoshen; Ye, Xiu; Zhang, Shangyou; Zhu, PengThis article introduces a particular weak Galerkin (WG) element on rectangular/cuboid partitions that uses k $$ k $$ th order polynomial for weak finite element functions and ( k + 1 ) $$ \left(k+1\right) $$ th order polynomials for weak derivatives. This WG element is highly accurate with convergence two orders higher than the optimal order in an energy norm and the L 2 $$ {L}^2 $$ norm. The superconvergence is verified analytically and numerically. Furthermore, the usual stabilizer in the standard weak Galerkin formulation is no longer needed for this element.
- ItemSeeing Algebra in Arithmetic Through Mathematical Problem Posing(The Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics, 2022-08-31) Cai, Jinfa; Hwang, StephenThis paper proceeds from the position that elementary- and middle-school students can learn and should be exposed to algebraic ideas and that a fruitful mechanism for this is to help them to see the algebra in arithmetic. After a brief survey of the literature on helping students see algebra in arithmetic, the main focus of the paper is on the use of mathematical problem posing in the classroom to help students see the algebra in arithmetic. To illustrate this, we present three cases of teaching mathematics through problem posing and discuss the perspectives they offer on developing students’ algebraic thinking. The paper concludes with an examination of how teachers might be supported in using problem posing to help their students see the algebra in arithmetic.