Open Access Publications

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Open access publications by faculty, staff, postdocs, and graduate students in the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences.

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    Sources, Conceptualizations, and Mechanisms of Racism/Oppression for Academic and Mental Health Outcomes
    (AERA Open, 2024-06-10) Polk, Whitney M.; Hill, Nancy E.; Hughes, Diane L.
    Interpersonal and systemic racism and discrimination persist in our educational system—from primary and secondary institutions through college, despite the forward strides of desegregation, the Civil Rights Movement, and the Black Lives Matter movement. This special topic collection identifies and applies empirically and theoretically grounded conceptualizations of racism to improve our understanding of the experience of racism, interventions to mitigate it, and protective factors. The papers in this collection reflect two themes: 1) racial and religious identities in classrooms, schools, and universities, focusing on how educators mitigate and perpetuate systemic racism, including how White teachers understand the impact of race, how inclusive and antiracism curricula are received and rejected by future educators and clinicians, and the impact of exclusionary social networks in the hiring of teachers of color and 2) school belonging and climate, including documenting that students of color feel less safe, are disproportionately exposed to harsh discipline, question their belonging, and question commitments to diversity. The negative sequelae are concurrent and last into adulthood. In addition, there are several advances in theory and measurement, including assessing gendered and racial biases in teachers’ attributions about students’ abilities, frameworks for mitigating colonial and racialized trauma, and domains of antiracist activism to bring racial justice and equity to schools.
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    Beyond “Not My Type”: A Quantitative Examination of Intraminority Stigma Among Gay Men Who Use Dating Apps
    (Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2024-03-14) Shepherd, Benjamin F.; Tidwell, Colin A.; Layland, Eric K.; Maki, Justin L.; Brochu, Paula M.
    Gay men with intersecting diverse identities are at increased risk for experiencing intraminority stigma (i.e., negative attitudes or discrimination from the gay community based on a socially undervalued identity or trait). The use of dating apps is pervasive among gay men and becoming more common during the ongoing, global COVID-19 pandemic, representing a potential site for intraminority stigma. In this study, the association between online dating and experiences of stigma within the gay community was examined utilizing an international sample of 2,159 gay men through the lens of intraminority gay community stress theory. Participants reported how frequently they experienced stigma from other gay men based on age, socioeconomic status, nonconformity to popular gay culture (i.e., hobbies, beliefs, or ideologies perceived as typical of gay men), race/ethnicity, gender expression, and body size and shape. Approximately 60% of the sample used dating apps/websites every month or more frequently. More frequent dating app use was associated with more frequent experiences of intraminority stress across the constructs of age stigma, socioeconomic stigma, racial/ethnic stigma, and body stigma but not gay nonconformity stigma or gender expression stigma. More frequent dating app use was associated with more intraminority racial/ethnic stigma among gay men of color relative to White gay men and more intraminority age stigma among older gay men relative to younger gay men. Findings provide empirical and contextual evidence for multiple forms of intraminority stigma, paving the way for future intersectional research focused on the social, psychological, and physical well-being of multiply marginalized gay men. Public Significance Statement This study shows that the use of dating apps and websites is common among gay men of varying backgrounds, especially younger and less wealthy gay men, and that gay men who used these services more frequently were more likely to experience stigma from other gay men based on age, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and body size and shape. Furthermore, findings suggest older gay men and gay men of color are especially likely to experience identity-based stigma from other gay men while using dating apps/websites.
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    Living, learning, working, and playing during COVID-19: tackling existing and exacerbated problems of low-income Singaporean youth
    (Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development, 2024-02-12) Kwan, Jin Yao; Tan, Joshua; Yi Jie, Chua; Khor, Joanna
    COVID-19’s adverse, disproportionate impact on low-income youth — prompting youth-serving professionals to adapt and adjust — is well-documented. However, research gaps exist, including explanatory processes underlying COVID-19’s deleterious impact, systematic documentation of existing and exacerbated problems, and short- and long-term responses of youth-serving professionals. Using a multi-informant mixed methods design guided by a live-learn-work-play theoretical framework, exploratory findings indicated that COVID-19 worsened existing problems across all domains. In the short-term, Singaporean professionals prioritised, moved online, and evaluated programmes. Progressively, they sought to build youth communities, empower families, collaborate, and experiment. Findings have implications for understanding and resolving structural problems perpetuating pre-disaster vulnerabilities.
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    Practice research’s challenges and opportunities across project conceptualisation, implementation, and dissemination: a Singaporean case study
    (China Journal of Social Work, 2024-01-14) Kwan, Jin Yao; Khor, Joanna; Chan, Joe
    Because practice research’s benefits in social work contexts are well-documented, research attention has shifted to improving its operationalisation within organisations. However, few studies have examined practice research’s challenges and opportunities across project conceptualisation, implementation, and dissemination. Even fewer have considered practitioner-researcher and organisational power dynamics, especially in Asia. Using a qualitative exploratory case study approach, we first described the challenges a Singaporean youth work agency faced during conceptualisation, implementation, and dissemination across three practice-research projects. Subsequently, we evaluated how the core practice-research team seized opportunities to address these challenges (i.e. manpower and resourcing, disproportionate researcher influence, sustaining interest internally and externally) and future improvement opportunities (i.e. institutionalise knowledge, build organisational capacity, and examine structural impediments). Implications for practitioners and researchers and effective organisational strategies – internally, externally, and structurally – are discussed. 摘要 实践研究的优势在社会工作背景下已得到较多讨论, 研究注意力已开始转向如何改善其在组织内的可操作性。然而, 尤其在亚洲地区、研究者较少探讨实践研究在项目概念化、实施和传播方面存在的挑战和机遇, 对实务工作者-研究者以及组织权力动力方面的探究则更为缺乏。本文运用定性探索性案例研究方法, 首先描述了一间新加坡青年工作机构三个实践研究项目在概念化、实施和传播过程中所面临的挑战。随后, 论文评估了核心团队如何抓住机遇以应对这些挑战 (即人力和资源、研究人员不成比例的影响力、和维持内外部的兴趣), 并探讨未来的改进机会 (即制度化知识、建设组织能力、和考察结构性障碍) 。论文最后讨论了该研究对实务工作者、研究者以及在内部, 外部和结构性方面如何推动有效组织策略的启示。
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    Criminalized or Stigmatized? An Intersectional Power Analysis of the Charter School Treatment of Black and Latino Boys
    (Urban Education, 2024-02-06) Carey, Roderick L.
    As scholars account for the disproportional harm adolescent Black and Latino boys face in school, needed are studies that report on more than educator bias. Utilizing interviews and ethnographic observations from an urban charter school, I introduce and deploy the Intersectional School Power Model to illustrate how multiple school processes coalesced to uphold the criminalization of Black boys and stigmatization of Latino boys subtly and acutely. Findings show their (mis)treatment resulted from intersecting power arrangements across four school domains: the structural (e.g., organizational components), cultural (e.g., school norms), disciplinary (e.g., student corrective policies and practices), and interpersonal (e.g., daily interactions).
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    The Postsecondary Future Selves of Black and Latinx Boys: A Case for Cultivating More Expansive Supports in College-Going Schools
    (American Educational Research Journal, 2024-04) Carey, Roderick L.
    Black and Latinx adolescent boys from economically stratified communities face pervasive societal inequities and, therefore, deserve more responsive school supports to determine and actualize postsecondary pathways. For insights into how such students conceptualize their futures and their school’s role in facilitating this process, this ethnographic study investigated one urban school’s college-going culture and its impact on shaping what the author calls participants’ postsecondary future selves. This theoretical approach encompasses three domains: college (i.e., postsecondary education), career (i.e., post-college employment trajectory), and condition (i.e., expected financial stability, relational and familial prospects, future living arrangements, happiness, and joy). Implications suggest that college-going school practitioners widen supports so students can imagine and envision how college ambitions align with career and condition goals.
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    Child Temperament as a Moderator of Promoting First Relationships Intervention Effects Among Families in Early Head Start
    (Prevention Science, 2022-01-21) Hustedt, Jason T.; Hooper, Alison; Hallam, Rena A.; Vu, Jennifer A.; Han, Myae; Ziegler, Melissa
    As availability of parent–child interaction curricula increases, Early Head Start (EHS) provides a relevant context to test research-based parenting models as part of everyday practice. We trained EHS staff to incorporate the Promoting First Relationships (PFR) intervention into ongoing weekly home visits with mothers and their young children (n = 102) enrolled in EHS. Children had a mean age of 19.75 months and were 56% Hispanic, 23% Black, and 14% White. Families were randomly assigned to an intervention group where they participated in PFR as an EHS enhancement, or to a waitlist-control group where they received only typical EHS services. To explore the possibility that effectiveness of parent–child curricula may differ based on child characteristics, we used linear regression to examine children’s temperament as a potential moderator of PFR efficacy on outcomes related to parenting stress, family functioning, and parent–child interaction. While we did not find a significant main effect of PFR for the full sample, there were several significant moderated effects. For families where children showed higher levels of surgency, mothers’ parenting stress was significantly reduced after PFR participation. Also, when children showed higher levels of negative affect, mothers demonstrated higher sensitivity in parent–child interactions after participating in PFR. Given findings from our exploratory study, agencies should consider the characteristics of families served and the match with intervention priorities, when selecting intervention programs. When delivered as a home visitation enhancement, PFR may be a valuable support for certain enrolled families, based on child characteristics including high levels of surgency or negative affect.
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    A qualitative study of healthcare providers’ attitudes toward assisted partner notification for people with HIV in Indonesia
    (BMC Health Services Research, 2023-01-24) Levy, Judith A.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Milanti, Ariesta; Waluyo, Agung; Culbert, Gabriel J.
    Background Assisted partner notification (APN) is recommended as a public health strategy to increase HIV testing in people exposed to HIV. Yet its adoption in many countries remains at an early stage. This qualitative study sought the opinions of HIV health service providers regarding the appropriateness and feasibility of implementing APN in Indonesia where such services are on the cusp of adoption. Methods Four focus group discussions totaling 40 health service providers were held in Jakarta, Indonesia to consider APN as an innovative concept and to share their reactions regarding its potential implementation in Indonesia. Voice-recorded discussions were conducted in Bahasa, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed. Results Participants recognized APN’s potential in contacting and informing the partners of HIV-positive clients of possible viral exposure. They also perceived APN’s value as a client-driven service permitting clients to select which of three partner notification methods would work best for them across differing partner relationships and settings. Nonetheless, participants also identified personal and health system challenges that could impede successful APN adoption including medical and human resource limitations, the need for specialized APN training, ethical and equity considerations, and lack of sufficient clarity concerning laws and government policies regulating 3rd party disclosures. They also pointed to the job-overload, stress, personal discomfort, and the ethical uncertainty that providers might experience in delivering APN. Conclusion Overall, providers of HIV services embraced the concept of APN but forecast practical difficulties in key service areas where investments in resources and system change appeared necessary to ensure effective and equitable implementation.
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    Characterizing the impacts of public health control measures on domestic violence services: qualitative interviews with domestic violence coalition leaders
    (BMC Public Health, 2023-09-05) Horney, Jennifer A.; Fleury‑Steiner, Ruth; Camphausen, Lauren C.; Wells, Sarah A.; Miller, Susan L.
    Background Prior to the availability of pharmaceutical control measures, non-pharmaceutical control measures, including travel restrictions, physical distancing, isolation and quarantine, closure of schools and workplaces, and the use of personal protective equipment were the only tools available to public health authorities to control the spread of COVID-19. The implementation of these non-pharmaceutical control measures had unintended impacts on the ability of state and territorial domestic violence coalitions to provide services to victims. Methods A semi-structured interview guide to assess how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted service provision and advocacy generally, and how COVID-19 control measures specifically, created barriers to services and advocacy, was developed, pilot tested, and revised based on feedback. Interviews with state and territorial domestic violence coalition executive directors were conducted between November 2021 and March 2022. Transcripts were inductively and deductively coded using both hand-coding and qualitative software. Results Forty-five percent (25 of 56) of state and territorial domestic violence coalition executive directors representing all 8 National Network to End Domestic Violence (NNEDV) regions were interviewed. Five themes related to the use of non-pharmaceutical pandemic control measures with impacts on the provision of services and advocacy were identified. Conclusions The use of non-pharmaceutical control measures early in the COVID-19 pandemic had negative impacts on the health and safety of some vulnerable groups, including domestic violence victims. Organizations that provide services and advocacy to victims faced many unique challenges in carrying out their missions while adhering to required public health control measures. Policy and preparedness plan changes are needed to prevent unintended consequences of control measure implementation among vulnerable groups as well as to identify lessons learned that should be applied in future disasters and emergencies.
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    Refugees’ Perspectives on Cultural Adaptation and Education of Their Children: Myanmar Refugee Mothers’ Story
    (International Journal of Higher Education, 2023-08-05) Lim, Boo Young; Han, Myae; Han, Shin Ae; Lee, Jiyeon; Lake, Vickie
    This qualitative study explored Myanmar refugee mothers' perceptions and experiences of social and cultural capital use for their children’s education and cultural adaptation while resettling in the host country, the United States. The multiple sources of data were collected and triangulated, including a parent survey, individual interviews with three mothers, a focused group interview with a group of mothers, and meticulous field notes. The findings revealed three prominent themes of social and cultural capital use among Myanmar refugee mothers: education as hopes vs. concerns, language as an opportunity vs. disappearance, and community as social capital vs. social distance. The Myanmar refugee families engaged in complex negotiations for each capital as they supported their children’s education and cultural adaptation. Refugee mothers strived to utilize their past experiences as well as cultural and social resources, such as their home language, nurturing relationships, and networking with fellow ethnic mothers, to provide diverse social and cultural capital for their children. This study offers valuable insights for teachers and policymakers when considering the successful integration of refugee children and families into current school systems.
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    Perceived Neighborhood Characteristics and Cognitive Functioning among Diverse Older Adults: An Intersectional Approach
    (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2021-03-06) Thierry, Amy D.; Sherman-Wilkins, Kyler; Armendariz, Marina; Sullivan, Allison; Farmer, Heather R.
    Unfavorable neighborhood conditions are linked to health disparities. Yet, a dearth of literature examines how neighborhood characteristics contribute to cognitive health in diverse samples of older adults. The present study uses an intersectional approach to examine how race/ethnicity, gender, and education moderate the association between neighborhood perceptions and cognitive functioning in later life. We used data from adults ≥65 years old (n = 8023) in the 2010–2016 waves of the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We conducted race/ethnicity-stratified linear regression models where cognitive functioning, measured using the 35-point Telephone Interview Cognitive Screen (TICS), was regressed on three neighborhood characteristics—cleanliness, safety, and social cohesion. We examine whether there is heterogeneity within race/ethnicity by testing if and how the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and cognitive functioning differs by gender and education. Among White adults, worse neighborhood characteristics were associated with lower cognitive functioning among those with less education. However, for Black adults, poor perceived quality of one’s neighborhood was associated with worse cognitive functioning among those with more years of education compared to those with fewer years of education. Among Mexicans, perceived neighborhood uncleanliness was associated with lower cognitive functioning among those with less education, but higher cognitive functioning for those with higher levels of education. Thus, this study contributes to the literature on racial/ethnic disparities in cognitive aging disparities by examining neighborhood contextual factors as determinants of cognitive functioning. In particular, we find that higher education in the context of less favorable neighborhood environments does not confer the same benefits to cognitive functioning among all older adults.
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    Evoking Learning by Examples through Reducing Misconceptions and Highlighting Procedures
    (The Journal of Experimental Education, 2023-07-10) Barbieri, Christina Areizaga; Silla, Elena M.
    Prior research highlights a positive effect of incorrect worked examples on mathematics learning. Yet the mechanisms underlying these benefits are unclear. To investigate potential mechanisms of the benefits of various worked example types, we examined process data from a previously published classroom-based experiment. More specifically, we analyzed students’ explanations made while explaining worked examples in three varying example conditions as well as students’ problem-solving errors made when solving problems. These data operationalize two potential mechanisms: a reduction of misconceptions (i.e., fewer targeted conceptual errors), and an increase in principled algebra knowledge (i.e., explanations focusing on principles underlying procedures). Mediation analyses revealed both as important mechanisms of varying effects. A reduction of misconceptions explained greater benefits of all three worked example conditions, compared to a problem-solving control, on an algebra concepts posttest. More principled explanations of procedures explained the benefits of incorrect worked examples on problem-solving at posttest compared to the two other example conditions. These findings help explain differential findings in prior work by example type and may elucidate potential avenues for errorful instruction.
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    Gifts, growing, and love: A qualitative analysis of children’s literature depicting breastfeeding
    (Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 2023-04-27) Bianca, Kelsey Palmer
    Children’s literature on the topic of breastfeeding is a niche form of media that has the potential to present breastfeeding in a different light because of a difference in audience and intent, but this media form is understudied. The aim of this study was to explore the portrayal of breastfeeding in English language children’s literature published between 1985 and 2020. This cross-sectional qualitative study explored the written and visual content of children’s literature on the topic of breastfeeding. This qualitative study utilized content analysis to explore 49 children’s books that depict breastfeeding as a major theme or story. Children’s books depict breastfeeding as an act of love that confers benefits beyond nutrition including being a symbolic gift, and conferring growth, and love. Breastfeeding is presented in these books by teaching how mammals feed their young or by teaching children about the function of breasts. These books also often include information for parents. Children’s literature depicting breastfeeding provides a unique avenue for the dissemination of breastfeeding resources and information. This research can inform lactation education practices in healthcare settings by normalizing breastfeeding.
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    Can an intensive professional development on play change child care providers’ perspectives and practice on play?
    (International Journal of Play, 2023-05-17) Han, Myae; Buell, Martha; Liu, Di; Pic, Annette
    Early childhood teachers need knowledge and skills to support play and learning. However, the child care workforce often has limited or no preservice training on play, relying instead on in-service training. With policy shifts towards a standards-driven curriculum in the U.S., there is limited in-service play training available, creating a need for high quality in-service training on play. This study introduces a model of intensive professional development (PD) on play – a group workshop coupled with a group coaching model – implemented in the Mid-Atlantic area in the U.S. The play training focused on three areas: self-active play experience, the knowledge and skills needed to support children's learning through play. The group coaching component included feedback on self-recorded video practice and an opportunity for participants to share reflections on supporting play with each other and the coaches. We conducted an interview study with the participants about their perspectives on play and practice after the intensive PD. Qualitative data analysis revealed that: (1) all participants changed their perspectives on play after the play PD; (2) participants implemented strategies from the training and supported more play in practice; and (3) despite increased knowledge and skills, participants continued to experience challenges when implementing play strategies.
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    Investigating the Psychological Risk and Protective Factors Related to Fear of COVID-19 During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Iran
    (Practice in Clinical Psychology, 2023-04-01) Abasi, Imaneh; Farzin, Azin; Sohrabzadeh Fard, Amin; Masjedi Arani, Abbas; Poursharifi, Hamid; Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, Mohammad; Mehrabi, Ali
    Objective: The current COVID-19 pandemic is associated with numerous psychological issues, such as anxiety and distress as a result of individual, health-related, social, and economic issues. This study aims to assess the general population in Iran for the negative impacts of the current pandemic on psychological well-being and to find possible protective and risk factors when facing such situations in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A total of 317 people participated in an online survey in Iran from August 3, 2020, to September 20, 2020. Anxiety, depression, fear of COVID-19, emotion regulation, intolerance of uncertainty, illness perception, neuroticism, social support, and self-efficacy were evaluated. Results: The results showed that measures that assess anxiety, depression, emotion regulation, intolerance of uncertainty, illness perception, neuroticism, social support, and self-efficacy were significantly related to fear of COVID-19. Meanwhile, the results of regression analysis demonstrated that neuroticism, intolerance of uncertainty, and illness perception could predict fear of COVID-19 beyond and above anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Some factors, including neuroticism, illness perception, and intolerance of uncertainty are considered risk factors for mental health during this pandemic.
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    Service models for providing sex education to individuals with intellectual disabilities in the United States
    (Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 2023-03-16) Curtiss, Sarah L.; Stoffers, Melissa
    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities face barriers to accessing sex education, including a lack of professional ownership over providing sex education. Limited information exists regarding educator training background, funding structure, and who they serve. We interviewed 58 sex educators of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. We integrated thematic analysis and composite narratives to identify service models and the benefits and challenges associated with them. We identified seven service delivery models: clinic-based board-certified behavior analysis; mental health therapists; small businesses; public health not-for-profits; disability programs; high school-based educators; and university-based educators; and three themes that addressed the strengths and challenges of these service models: Instructional Implications of the Short-term, Drop-in Approach; Getting on the Same Page; and Questioning Who Should Teach Sex Education. Understanding these typologies and their strengths and challenges provide insights into how we can build capacity for sex education services.
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    Pandemic-Era WIC Participation in Wilmington, Delaware: Participants’ Experiences and Challenges
    (Nutrients, 2023-01-19) Halverson, McKenna M.; Karpyn, Allison
    Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participants faced unprecedented challenges during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic including financial concerns, a national infant formula shortage, and rising food costs. To mitigate these challenges, the United States Department of Agriculture implemented WIC program waivers and flexibilities aiming to simplify program operations (e.g., remote appointments and food package substitutions). However, little is known about WIC participants’ perceptions of these changes and their impact on in-store benefit redemption. As such, this study aimed to characterize how pandemic-related events impacted Delaware WIC participants’ shopping experiences and program perceptions. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 51 WIC participants in Wilmington, Delaware. Survey measures included demographic questions, the Hunger Vital Sign, and open-ended questions regarding WIC program participation experiences during the pandemic. Data were analyzed using a hybrid inductive and deductive coding approach. The results demonstrate that WIC participants benefitted from the pandemic program’s flexibilities. However, they continued to experience burdensome shopping trips as well as concerns about their ability to feed their families due to infant formula shortages and inflation. These findings indicate the importance of extending existing WIC flexibilities and providing continued support for both participants and WIC-authorized retailors.
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    The Relationship Between Mental Illness Stigma and Self-Labeling
    (Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 2022-11-07) Fox, Annie B.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.
    Objective: One way that stigma may interfere with treatment-seeking is its impact on whether an individual self-labels as someone with mental illness (MI). While identifying and labeling oneself as experiencing MI is an important early step in seeking treatment, self-labeling may also make individuals more susceptible to the negative effects of internalized, anticipated, and experienced stigma. In the present study, we examined the relationship between MI stigma and self-labeling. We hypothesized that endorsement of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination would be higher among those individuals who do not self-label and that those who did self-label would endorse higher levels of anticipated, internalized, and experienced stigma. Method: We conducted a survey of stigma and mental health via MTurk. The sample included 257 individuals who met criteria for a current probable diagnosis of depression, generalized anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We compared those individuals who responded “yes” to ever experiencing MI (n = 202) to those who responded “no” (n = 52) on demographic variables, mental health symptoms and treatment history, and stigma. Results: Individuals who did not self-label as having MI were more likely to be younger, male, and single. They also endorsed higher levels of stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and experienced stigma. Self-labelers endorsed more internalized stigma than those who did not self-label. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Findings suggest that associations between stigma and self-labeling are complex. Consistent with modified labeling theory, stigma may both act as a barrier to adopting a label of MI and increase vulnerability to stigma if the label is adopted. Impact and Implications: Individuals who do not self-label as having a mental illness (MI) endorse higher levels of stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and experienced stigma; individuals who self-label as having MI endorse higher levels of internalized stigma compared to non-self-labelers. Stigma may therefore act both as a barrier to adopting a label of MI and increase vulnerability to stigma if the label is adopted.
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    “Teachers think the kids around here, don't really want to learn”: Street-identified black men and women's attitudes toward teachers and schooling
    (Sociology Compass, 2022-12-21) Payne, Yasser Arafat; Aviles, Ann M.; Yates, Nefetaria A.
    This street participatory action research project explored the reflective schooling experiences of street identified Black men and women (ages 18–35) in two small low-income neighborhoods. Secondary analysis of survey (N = 520) and interview (N = 46) data examined: (1) How are attitudes toward schooling and teachers affected by race, gender and age?; and (2) How do students utilize a street-identity as a site of resilience inside schools? Overall, street-identified study participants held positive attitudes toward schooling, but generally performed poorly in schools and had negative experiences with educators. No significance was found as a function of gender and age regarding attitudes toward schooling and attitudes toward teachers. Also, interview results, across gender and age, suggest school-related structural challenges and poor teacher-student relationships contributed to severe conflict between students and teachers; and between students. Interviewees argued some Black students internalized a street identity or became disruptive and even engaged in school violence as a protective mechanism to endure hostile schooling environments. Moreover, Street PAR is discussed as a method and intervention to improve student performance and resolve concerns between students and educators.
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    Unpacking the social-emotional health of education support professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic
    (Psychology in the Schools, 2022-12-09) Naples, Lauren H.; Cipriano, Christina; Eveleigh, Abigail; Stoffers, Melissa; Barnes, Tia N.
    This study sought to understand education support professionals' (ESPs) experiences early in the COVID-19 pandemic, including how they were feeling about their roles in education, strategies they were using to cope with unprecedented times, barriers they encountered toward maintaining SE health at work, and opportunities they identified as critical for creating safe and supportive school environments. This study employed a convergent parallel (QUAN + QUAL) mixed methods research design to capture ESPs' affective experiences and use of social and emotional learning (SEL). Data were collected in partnership with the National Education Association across 4 weeks through a survey including open and closed-ended questions. A total of 175 participants responded to the quantitative portion of the survey and at least one qualitative survey question. Findings suggest ESPs were feeling frustrated and experiencing very little SEL support in their daily work. ESPs would benefit from increased communication, inclusion, recognition, and well-being promotion in their schools. This study offers new insight into how schools and districts can provide better SEL support to ESPs. Practitioner points: - Education support professionals were feeling frustrated and experiencing very little social and emotional support in their daily work early in the COVID-19 pandemic. - Education support professionals would benefit from increased communication, inclusion, and recognition in their schools. - Schools must do better to promote the professional and personal well-being of education support professionals.
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