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Item2020 Report on SCOR Visiting Scholar Program(Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), 2020) Urban, Edward R.The SCOR Visiting Scholar program was started in 2009, to send scientists to developing countries to provide mentoring and teaching using a cost-effective approach. The program was loosely based on similar programs of the Partnership for Observation of the Global Ocean (POGO). SCOR issues a call for applications in September/October of each year and the SCOR Committee on Capacity Building selects applicants each year to serve as Visiting Scholars, depending on funds available. In recent years, SCOR has been able to support six Visiting Scholars: three supported with funds from the U.S. National Science Foundation, two with funds from national SCOR committees, and one with funds from crowdfunding and from the budget of the SCOR Committee on Capacity Building (which also comes from national SCOR committees). ItemBaseline study plans(Newark, College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware., 1973) Polis, Dennis F.The outline plan of a comprehensive and coordinated five-year study of the scientific and engineering aspects of Delaware Bay is presented in this volume. Specifications are provided for many subprojects, while others are simply outlined. The thrust of the study is the production of a crude overall predictive model for the physical and biological aspects of the bay system. ItemA biological evaluation of the Delaware River estuary(University of Delaware Marine Laboratories, 1959-09) Shuster, Carl N.This report deals with the biological productivity of a unit of Nature, the Delaware River estuary. In many respects this estuary and its productivity is similar to that of the several other estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North America, but each, like a person, has its own individual characteristics. This productivity and related biological, chemical, geological, and physical characteristics of the Delaware River estuary are not known fully, yet they are being studied and the descriptions and knowledge obtained each year can be useful to those persons concerned with the best use of our coastal areas. ItemThe biology of the oyster community and its associated fauna in Delaware Bay(Newark, College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware., 1973) Maurer, Don; Watling, LesThe purpose of this account is to describe the composition of the associated invertebrate fauna of Delaware Bay oyster beds, and to determine the effect of salinity, substrate, and season on this fauna. The dependence of the number of species in a bed community on maximum salinity is discussed, together with its temporal variability. The associated oyster fauna of Delaware Bay is very similar to estuaries throughout the world and thus this report may have more than local interest. ItemBlock-structured, equal-workload, multi-grid-nesting interface for the Boussinesq wave model FUNWAVE-TVD (Total Variation Diminishing)(Geoscientific Model Development, 2022-07-18) Choi, Young-Kwang; Shi, Fengyan; Malej, Matt; Smith, Jane M.; Kirby, James T.; Grilli, Stephan T.We describe the development of a block-structured, equal-CPU-load (central processing unit), multi-grid-nesting interface for the Boussinesq wave model FUNWAVE-TVD (Fully Nonlinear Boussinesq Wave Model with Total Variation Diminishing Solver). The new model framework does not interfere with the core solver, and thus the core program, FUNWAVE-TVD, is still a standalone model used for a single grid. The nesting interface manages the time sequencing and two-way nesting processes between the parent grid and child grid with grid refinement in a hierarchical manner. Workload balance in the MPI-based (message passing interface) parallelization is handled by an equal-load scheme. A strategy of shared array allocation is applied for data management that allows for a large number of nested grids without creating additional memory allocations. Four model tests are conducted to verify the nesting algorithm with assessments of model accuracy and the robustness in the application in modeling transoceanic tsunamis and coastal effects. ItemThe Collected Papers of Robert G. Snider in Relation to the First Years of The International Indian Ocean Expedition(Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), 2020-05) Urban, Edward R. ItemComprehensive bibliography on Delaware Bay(Newark, College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware., 1973) Plunguian, Mark; Fothergill, Robert E.; Longenbach, Anne H.; Cook, EvelynThis series is completed by a comprehensive indexed bibliography on all aspects of the Delaware Estuarine system. ItemCruises of the R/V Anton Bruun as part of the U.S. Program in Biology, International Indian Ocean Expedition(Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), 2019-01-19) Urban, Edward R. ItemCruises of the R/V Te Vega as part of the U.S. Program in Biology, International Indian Ocean Expedition (Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), 2019-04-10) Urban, Edward R.The R/V Te Vega conducted 4 cruises as part of U.S. Program in Biology of the International Indian Ocean Expedition of 1959-1965. This document describes where and how biological sampling was conducted on these cruises, and describes how a definitive station list was developed from different sources of data. ItemEcological studies on benthic and planktonic assemblages in lower Delaware Bay(College of Marine Studies University of Delaware, Lewes, Delaware, 1976) Watling, Les; Maurer, DonThis study was undertaken to obtain baseline ecological data in Delaware Bay. During the summers of 1972 and 1973 the first bay-wide quantitative survey of benthic organisms was conducted. The survey consisted of 207 samples distributed over 26 transects from the bay mouth to Woodland Beach, Delaware. Based on the results of the bay-wide survey reported herein, it was decided to conduct an intensive study in the oil lightering area in lower Delaware Bay (1974-1975). The intensive study included quantitative monthly investigations of phytoplankton and zooplankton together with quarterly investigations of the benthos. Two 12hour plankton studies were also conducted. In addition to the quantitative benthic studies, there were extensive samples with dredge hauls. Data from dredge hauls and grabs were compared to determine whether a useful method of community analysis could be developed based on dredge data alone. It was concluded, that such a method was feasible but that it required additional refinement. Some of the survey data were never reported for Delaware Bay prior to this study. ItemEconomic and Social Aspects of Delaware's Coastal Zone(Newark, College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware., 1973) Goodman, Joel MyronIn this volume the economic and social aspects of Delaware's coastal zone are considered from several different viewpoints. The first section develops a management and regulatory perspective. This is followed by two sections which deal with historical and contemporary perspectives, placing emphasis upon general industrial and social development, and the evolution of transportation, recreation, and commercial fisheries. The closing section of the volume considers a planning perspective and looks briefly into development issues involved in the future economic and social development of the Coastal Zone. ItemEffects of nitrate and ammonium on assimilation of nitric oxide by Heterosigma akashiwo(Scientific Reports, 2023-01-12) Healey, Emily M.; Flood, Stacie; Bock, Patience K.; Fulweiler, Robinson W.; York, Joanna K.; Coyne, Kathryn J.The harmful alga Heterosigma akashiwo possesses a hybrid nitrate reductase (NR) enzyme, NR2-2/2HbN, which has the potential to convert NO to nitrate for assimilation into biomass. In previous research, NR transcription in H. akashiwo was induced by nitrate while NR activity was inhibited by ammonium. Here, the capacity of H. akashiwo to use NO in the presence of nitrate and/or ammonium was investigated to understand the regulation of NO assimilation. Continuous cultures of H. akashiwo were acclimated to growth on nitrate, ammonium, or a mixture of both. Aliquots from these cultures were spiked with 15N-labeled NO. The expression of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation was evaluated, as well as nitrate reductase activity and assimilation of 15N-labeled nitrogen into algal biomass. Results showed that NO induced expression and activity of NR, and upregulated expression of GOGAT regardless of the presence of other inorganic nitrogen sources, while GS expression decreased over time. Furthermore, 15NO uptake and assimilation was significantly higher in cultures acclimated for growth on ammonium compared to cultures acclimated for growth on nitrate alone. Assimilation of NO may provide H. akashiwo with a competitive advantage in N-poor environments or areas with elevated NO. ItemEnergy utilization in the marsh crab, Sesarma reticulatum, and its relation to cyclic patterns(Newark, Del. : College of Marine Studies and Department of Biological Sciences, 1972) Daiber, Franklin C.; Jackewicz, Joan R.A study was undertaken to determine the energy utilized by Sesarma in feeding upon Spartina over lunar-monthly periods. Amounts of Spartina ingested and assimilated, in terms of grams dry weight, were found for three groups of crabs. These studies indicate a possible relationship between the quantity (i.e. grams dry weight) and/or quanity (i.e. associated with maturity) of Spartina available to the crabs and the amounts ingested and assimilated. These data, in addition to data from respiration measurements, were combined with information from the literature to construct energy budgets, in terms of caloric values, for the three groups. ItemFishes and ecological conditions in the shore zone of the Delaware River estuary: with notes on other species collected in deeper water(Newark : Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, 1962-04) De Sylva, Donald P.; Shuster, Carl N.; Kalber, Frederick A.Information was collected during the period August 1958-February 1960, concerning the distribution of fishes in the shore zone in relation to the various environments found at sixteen sites within the Delaware River estuary and adjacent areas of the Atlantic coast. Over 54,000 fishes comprising 66 species were collected in the shore zone. Data were occasionally collected concerning the presence of these 66 species in the deeper waters of the estuary as well as the occurrence of 72 species not caught in the beach zone area. Measurements of salinity, temperature, oxygen saturation, and turbidity of the water were taken at the time of fish collection. Observations of tide condition, plant associations, bottom type and associated animals were also made at the collection sites. ItemGuide to the macroscopic estuarine and marine invertebrates of the Delaware Bay region(Newark, College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware., 1973) Watling, Les; Maurer, DonThis volume represents the first major compilation of invertebrate species for the Delaware Bay region. Included in the volume are: a key to the major kinds of invertebrates in this region; taxonomic listings of over 300 species collected by the authors or referred to in other published papers; keys to these species; lists of species which, because of their known geographic distribution, may be expected to occur in this region; and a comprehensive bibliography of papers dealing with the species listed. ItemHistory, Land Ownership, and Laws, Including a Survey of Maps Prior to 1840(Newark, College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware., 1973) Natural and Historic Resource Associates; Polis, Dennis F.Volume 2 addresses itself to three areas of marine affairs vital for an understanding of the bay system. In the first part, the history of the region is discussed, with special emphasis on the role of waterborne transportation in the formation of land-use patterns. The second part delves into land ownership and use in the coastal margin around the bay. The third part reviews the state and federal laws available for the management of the bay. ItemInexpensive Feeds as Dietary Supplements to Accelerate Growth of Juvenile Surf Clams (Spisula solidissima)(2010-09-02) Urban, Edward R.; Monte, John D.; Moore, M. MugIncreased demand for live and processed clams has been accompanied by a decreased supply of wild clams. The surf clam, Spisula solidissima, was utilized extensively for processed clam products until overfishing reduced the surf clam harvest. Surf clams can be produced in one growing season, for use in markets currently supplied by slower growing hard or soft-shell clams. The purpose of this research project was to determine if inexpensive supplements could be used to cost-effectively accelerate clam growth in a commercial-scale open system. Addition of rice starch to the natural algal supply resulted in significant increases in clam weight and length. Increased value of larger clams was not great enough, however, to offset increased labor and feed costs. The results of this study will not allow immediate commercialization of the supplementation process. Rather, these results may encourage further research with supplemental feeds. Before commercialization can take place, better diets must be developed and unit labor costs must be reduced. Cost-effective supplemental feeding could provide surf clam seed for grow-out to supply markets for live and processed clam products. ItemInventory and Evaluation of Information on Delaware Bay(Newark, College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware., 1973) University of Delaware, College of Marine Studies.; Polis, Dennis F.The volume which the reader has in his hands is designed to provide a starting point for those wishing to become acquainted with the bay. It reviews briefly the present research on the bay, the general availability and quality of data (including maps and aerial photography); technical, research, and advisory groups dealing with the bay; and finally future plans and proposals for the bay region. ItemMarshaling ports required to meet US policy targets for offshore wind power(Energy Policy, 2022-02-16) Parkison, Sara B.; Kempton, WillettWe analyze infrastructure needed for offshore wind power targets set by U.S. state and federal policies—specifically, manufacturing, vessels, and offshore wind ports. By examining cost-competitive turbine and project sizes and infrastructure challenges, we identify marshaling ports as a key bottleneck. Through elicitation of requirements from supply chain, port, and vessel experts, we identify the necessary attributes for marshaling ports and calculate the area needed to meet policy targets. US marshaling ports are currently insufficient to meet either state or federal power targets. We calculate state commitments from state contracts and policies: in sum, 40 GW by 2040. Federal targets from the Biden Administration are 30 GW by 2030 and 110 GW by 2050. Either target yields more demand for marshaling area than is currently available or planned. The shortage of marshaling area supply has incorrectly been attributed to lack of suitable U.S. locations. Instead, we attribute it to developers having built ports to support early, smaller projects, and having located them to incentivize state power contracts rather than developing ports for long-term, large-scale, and economically-efficient use. Additional land suitable for marshaling ports exists, but it requires commitment from port authorities and port investors to develop it for this purpose.