Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences
Permanent URI for this community
Visit the Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences for more information about this department. The UDSpace community for this department contains open-access research materials created by members of this department.
Browsing Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences by Issue Date
Now showing 1 - 20 of 26
Results Per Page
- Item#Grateful: Longitudinal Associations Between Adolescents’ Social Media Use and Gratitude During the COVID-19 Pandemic(Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2021-08-26) Maheux, Anne J.; Nesi, Jacqueline; Galla, Brian M.; Roberts, Savannah R.; Choukas-Bradley, SophiaDuring the COVID-19 pandemic, some ways of using social media—such as directly communicating with friends—may have helped adolescents thrive. We examined longitudinal associations between high school adolescents’ social media use and gratitude across a 15-month period before and during the pandemic (n = 704, Mage = 15.10; 52% girls). The trajectories of gratitude and the importance of social media for meaningful conversations with friends—but not frequency of social media use—were positively associated over time. At the within-person level, gratitude predicted increased importance of social media for meaningful conversations, but not vice-versa. Findings suggest that gratitude may be associated with and may motivate using social media to foster social connection, but may not increase overall social media use.
- ItemVariation in the gene Tas1r3 reveals complex temporal properties of mouse brainstem taste responses to sweeteners(American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 2021-09-15) McCaughey, Stuart A.The gene Tas1r3 codes for the protein T1R3, which dimerizes with T1R2 to form a sweetener-binding receptor in taste cells. Tas1r3 influences sweetener preferences in mice, as shown by work with a 129.B6-Tas1r3 segregating congenic strain on a 129P3/J (129) genetic background; members of this strain vary in whether they do or do not have one copy of a donor fragment with the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) allele for Tas1r3 (B6/129 and 129/129 mice, respectively). Taste-evoked neural responses were measured in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), the first central gustatory relay, in B6/129 and 129/129 littermates, to examine how the activity dependent on the T1R2/T1R3 receptor is distributed across neurons and over time. Responses to sucrose were larger in B6/129 than in 129/129 mice, but only during a later, tonic response portion (>600 ms) sent to different cells than the earlier, phasic response. Similar results were found for artificial sweeteners, whose responses were best considered as complex spatiotemporal patterns. There were also group differences in burst firing of NST cells, with a significant positive correlation between bursting prevalence and sucrose response size in only the 129/129 group. The results indicate that sweetener transduction initially occurs through T1R3-independent mechanisms, after which the T1R2/T1R3 receptor initiates a separate, spatially distinct response, with the later period dominating sweet taste perceptions and driving sugar preferences. Furthermore, the current data suggest that burst firing is distributed across NST neurons nonrandomly and in a manner that may amplify weak incoming gustatory signals.
- ItemIdentifying brain regions supporting amygdalar functionality: Application of a novel graph theory technique(NeuroImage, 2021-09-25) Matyi, Melanie A.; Cioaba, Sebastian M.; Banich, Marie T.; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.Effective amygdalar functionality depends on the concerted activity of a complex network of regions. Thus, the role of the amygdala cannot be fully understood without identifying the set of brain structures that allow the processes performed by the amygdala to emerge. However, this identification has yet to occur, hampering our ability to understand both normative and pathological processes that rely on the amygdala. We developed and applied novel graph theory methods to diffusion-based anatomical networks in a large sample (n = 1,052, 54.28% female, mean age=28.75) to identify nodes that critically support amygdalar interactions with the larger brain network. We examined three graph properties, each indexing a different emergent aspect of amygdalar network communication: current-flow betweenness centrality (amygdalar influence on information flowing between other pairs of nodes), node communicability (clarity of communication between the amygdala and other nodes), and subgraph centrality (amygdalar influence over local network processing). Findings demonstrate that each of these aspects of amygdalar communication is associated with separable sets of regions and, in some cases, these sets map onto previously identified sub-circuits. For example, betweenness and communicability were each associated with different sub-circuits that have been identified in previous work as supporting distinct aspects of memory-guided behavior. Other regions identified span basic (e.g., visual cortex) to higher-order (e.g., insula) sensory processing and executive functions (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Present findings expand our current understanding of amygdalar function by showing that there is no single ‘amygdala network’, but rather multiple networks, each supporting different modes of amygdalar interaction with the larger brain network. Additionally, our novel method allowed for the identification of how such regions support the amygdala, which has not been previously explored.
- ItemAssociations between cortical thickness and anxious/depressive symptoms differ by the quality of early care(Development and Psychopathology, 2021-10-22) Korom, Marta; Tottenham, Nim; Valadez, Emilio A.; Dozier, MaryA variety of childhood experiences can lead to anxious/depressed (A/D) symptoms. The aim of the present study was to explore the brain morphological (cortical thickness and surface area) correlates of A/D symptoms and the extent to which these phenotypes vary depending on the quality of the parenting context in which children develop. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired on 45 children with Child Protective Services (CPS) involvement due to risk of not receiving adequate care (high-risk group) and 25 children without CPS involvement (low-risk group) (rangeage = 8.08–12.14; M age = 10.05) to assess cortical thickness (CT) and cortical surface area (SA). A/D symptoms were measured using the Child Behavioral Checklist. The association between A/D symptoms and CT, but not SA, differed by risk status such that high-risk children showed decreasing CT as A/D scores increased, whereas low-risk children showed increasing CT as A/D scores increased. This interaction was specific to CT in prefrontal, frontal, temporal, and parietal cortical regions. The groups had marginally different A/D scores, in the direction of higher risk being associated with lower A/D scores. Results suggest that CT correlates of A/D symptoms are differentially shaped by the quality of early caregiving experiences and should be distinguished between high- and low-risk children.
- ItemA multidimensional examination of psychopathy traits and gray matter volume in adults(Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2021-12-08) Miglin, Rickie; Rodriguez, Samantha; Bounoua, Nadia; Sadeh, NaomiUncovering the neurobiological abnormalities that may contribute to the manifestation of psychopathic traits is an important step toward understanding the etiology of this disorder. Although many studies have examined gray matter volume (GMV) in relation to psychopathy, few have examined how dimensions of psychopathic traits interactively relate to GMV, an approach that holds promise for parsing heterogeneity in neurobiological risk factors for this disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the affective-interpersonal (Factor 1) and impulsive-antisocial (Factor 2) dimensions of psychopathy in relation to cortical surface and subcortical GMV in a mixed-gender, high-risk community sample with significant justice-system involvement (N = 156, 50.0% men). Cortex-wide analysis indicated that (i) the Factor 1 traits correlated negatively with GMV in two cortical clusters, one in the right rostral middle frontal region and one in the occipital lobe, and (ii) the interaction of the affective-interpersonal and impulsive-antisocial traits was negatively associated with GMV bilaterally in the parietal lobe, such that individuals high on both trait dimensions evidenced reduced GMV relative to individuals high on only one psychopathy factor. An interactive effect also emerged for bilateral amygdalar and hippocampal GMV, such that Factor 1 psychopathic traits were significantly negatively associated with GMV only at high (but not low) levels of Factor 2 traits. Results extend prior research by demonstrating the neurobiological correlates of psychopathy differ based on the presentation of Factor 1 and 2 traits.
- ItemBody image and perception among adults with and without phantom limb pain(PM&R, 2021-12-16) Beisheim-Ryan, Emma Haldane; Hicks, Gregory Evan; Pohlig, Ryan Todd; Medina, Jared; Sions, Jaclyn MeganBackground: Following lower-limb amputation, phantom limb pain (i.e., pain perceived as coming from the amputated portion of the limb) is common. Phantom limb pain may be associated with impaired body image and perception, which may be targets for rehabilitative intervention. Objective: To compare measures of body image and perception between adults with and without phantom limb pain post amputation and evaluate associations between measures of body image and perception and phantom limb pain. Design: Survey. Setting: Online, remote assessment. Participants: Seventy-two adults ≥1 year post unilateral lower-limb loss (n = 42 with phantom limb pain, n = 30 without phantom limb pain or pain in the remaining portion of the limb). Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported outcome measures assessing body image (i.e., Amputee Body Image Scale-Revised), perceptual disturbances associated with the phantom limb (i.e., a modified Bath Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Body Perception Disturbance Scale), and prosthesis satisfaction (i.e., Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scale) were administered; participants with phantom limb pain reported pain interference via the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form. Between-group comparisons of self-reported outcome measure scores were conducted using Mann Whitney U or chi-square tests, as appropriate (a = .05). Results: Compared to peers without phantom limb pain, adults with phantom limb pain reported more negative body image; increased phantom limb ownership, attention, and awareness; and reduced prosthesis satisfaction and embodiment (U = 175.50–364.00, p < .001 to .034). Disturbances in phantom limb perception (i.e., size, weight, pressure, temperature) were similar between groups (p = .086 to >.999). More negative body image was associated with increased phantom limb pain interference (τb = .25, p = .026). Conclusions: Adults with phantom limb pain demonstrate more negative body image and hypervigilance of the phantom limb as compared to peers with nonpainful phantom sensations. Mind-body treatments that target impaired body image and perception may be critical interventions for adults with phantom limb pain.
- ItemAdapting psychophysiological data collection for COVID-19: The “Virtual Assessment” model(Infant Mental Health Journal, 2021-12-21) Tabachnick, Alexandra R.; Sellers, Tabitha; Margolis, Emma; Labella, Madelyn; Neff, Dylan; Crowell, Sheila; Raby, K. Lee; Saenz, Celine; Conradt, Elisabeth; Dozier, MaryThe COVID-19 pandemic has significantly disrupted research activities globally. Researchers need safe and creative procedures to resume data collection, particularly for projects evaluating infant mental health interventions. Remote research is uniquely challenging for psychophysiological data collection, which typically requires close contact between researchers and participants as well as technical equipment frequently located in laboratory settings. In accordance with public health guidance, we adapted procedures and developed novel protocols for a “virtual assessment” in which women and infants provided behavioral and psychophysiological data from their own homes while researchers coordinated remotely. Data collected at virtual visits included video-recorded parent–child interactions and autonomic nervous system data. Adaptations were designed to optimize safety and data quality while minimizing participant burden. In the current paper, we describe these adaptations and present data evaluating their success across two sites in the United States (University of Delaware and University of Utah), focusing specifically on autonomic nervous system data collected during the well-validated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP). We also discuss advantages and challenges of translating traditional lab procedures into the virtual assessment model. Ultimately, we hope that disseminating these procedures will help other researchers resume safe data collection related to infant mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.
- ItemTransitioning to telehealth due to COVID-19: Maintaining model fidelity in a home visiting program for parents of vulnerable infants(Infant Mental Health Journal, 2021-12-29) Roben, Caroline K. P.; Kipp, Evan; Schein, Stevie S.; Costello, Amanda H.; Dozier, MaryMaintaining treatment fidelity when implementing evidence-based interventions is a significant challenge. The inability to deliver in-person services due to the COVID-19 pandemic critically challenged the foundation of implementation fidelity for home visiting programs across the globe. The Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) program is an evidence-based home visiting intervention designed to increase sensitivity in parents of infants who have experienced early adversity. ABC's community effectiveness is due to rigorous fidelity monitoring and supervision. Fidelity is measured by microanalytic coding of parenting opportunities and “in-the-moment” commenting, the active ingredient of ABC. In this study, we examined intervention fidelity among parent coaches implementing ABC through telehealth. Random 5-min clips from 510 telehealth ABC session videos conducted by 91 parent coaches at 48 agencies were coded for their frequency and quality of in-the-moment comments. On average, parent coaches were able to exceed in-person commenting fidelity standards when implementing ABC through the telehealth format. The active fidelity monitoring and supervision inherent to ABC's dissemination afforded a smooth transition to implementing ABC through telehealth while adhering to fidelity standards. Procedural and clinical challenges to telehealth implementation are discussed, along with future directions for telehealth program effectiveness.
- ItemThreats to Belonging and Health: Understanding the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic using Decades of Research(Social Issues and Policy Review, 2022-01-17) Jaremka, Lisa M.; Kane, Heidi S.; Bell, Ann V.The COVID-19 pandemic, an external stressor with multiple stressful sequelae, has fundamentally changed people's lives over multiple years. In this article, we first review research demonstrating that the pandemic has negatively impacted people's sense of belonging and health over time. Next, we draw upon decades of theoretical and empirical work demonstrating that threats to belonging and mental health problems are highly interrelated, with increases in the former driving increases in the latter. We then extend this discussion to physical health, drawing upon a wealth of theoretical and empirical work demonstrating that threats to belonging are a risk factor for longer term health problems and premature mortality. We also highlight potential mechanisms linking threats to belonging and health, with a focus on sleep and immune function. Throughout, we review how pre-existing vulnerabilities may moderate these processes. We conclude with empirically supported recommendations for policymakers interested in addressing these issues.
- ItemLongitudinal associations between appearance-related social media consciousness and adolescents' depressive symptoms(Journal of Adolescence, 2022-01-26) Maheux, Anne J.; Roberts, Savannah R.; Nesi, Jacqueline; Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, SophiaIntroduction: Frequent social media use among adolescents is associated with depressive symptoms, though prior work has overwhelmingly used cross-sectional designs and focused on “screen time.” Subjective social media experiences, such as the concern with one's physical appearance on social media, may be more relevant to adolescents' depressive symptoms than mere frequency of use. Appearance-related social media consciousness (ASMC) is the preoccupation with one's physical attractiveness in social media photos and has been associated with depressive symptoms above and beyond frequency of social media use in prior cross-sectional work. Methods: In this brief report, we assessed this association longitudinally over 1 year within a diverse sample of highschool adolescents in the Southeastern US (n = 163, M age = 16.19; 55.8% girls; 44.8% White, 23.9% Black, 26.4% Hispanic/Latinx; 49.7% received free or reduced-price lunch). Results: Baseline ASMC was associated with higher depressive symptoms 1 year later, even when controlling for time spent on social media. Although girls reported higher levels of ASMC, associations were similar for adolescent boys and girls. No evidence was found that heightened depressive symptoms at baseline were associated with higher ASMC 1 year later. Conclusions: The findings highlight the importance of physical appearance concerns on social media—above and beyond the frequency of use—in the development of depressive symptoms among adolescents. Implications for future research to examine the role of subjective social media experiences in adolescents' depressive symptoms are discussed.
- ItemRat Model of Late Gestational Alcohol Exposure Produces Similar Life-Long Changes in Thalamic Nucleus Reuniens Following Moderate- Versus High-Dose Insult(Alcohol and Alcoholism, 2022-03-08) Gursky, Zachary H; Klintsova, Anna YAims: Recent studies have recognized that thalamic nucleus reuniens (Re) undergoes substantial neuron loss following alcohol exposure (AE) during the brain growth spurt (BGS). As all previous studies have utilized high-dose AE paradigms, we tested whether moderate-dose AE is capable of damaging Re to a similar degree as high-dose AE. Methods: We used a rat model of third-trimester binge AE (relative to human pregnancy) to administer ethanol to rat pups at either a high (5.25 g/kg/day) or moderate (3.00 g/kg/day) dose during the BGS (postnatal days [PD] 4–9) via intragastric intubation. In adulthood (i.e. PD72), we quantified the volume of Re as well as the total number of neurons and non-neuronal cells in the nucleus (which were further divided into microglia versus ‘other’ non-neurons), using unbiased stereological estimation of cells identified with immunofluorescent markers (i.e. nuclear label Hoechst, neuron-specific protein NeuN, and microglia-specific protein Iba1). Data were analyzed both between-treatment and correlated with peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Results and conclusions: We observed significant neuronal and non-neuronal cell loss in both the high-dose and moderate-dose AE groups (relative to both procedural control and typically-developing control groups), which mediated reductions in Re volume. Outcomes did not correlate with peak BAC, further supporting that Re is vulnerable to AE-induced neurodegeneration at lower doses than previously suspected. Given the role that Re has in coordinating prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, the current study highlights the role that thalamic damage may play in the range of behavioral alterations observed in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.
- ItemDevelopmental administration of valproic acid alters DNA methylation and maternal behavior(Developmental Psychobiology, 2022-03-14) Collins, Nicholas J.; Zimmerman, Catherine W.; Phillips, Natalia L. H.; Fern, Samantha; Doherty, Tiffany S.; Roth, Tania L.Exposure to adversity in early development has powerful and potentially lasting consequences on behavior. Previous work in our laboratory using female Long-Evans rats has demonstrated that exposure to early-life maltreatment manifests into alterations in dam behavior, including a perpetuation of the maltreatment phenotype. These observed behavioral changes coincide with changes in epigenetic activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Further, treating dams with a chromatin modifying agent (Zebularine) normalizes methylation and maltreatment phenotypes, suggesting a link between epigenetic programming and phenotypic outcomes. Here, we sought to investigate if administration of a chromatin modifying agent concurrent with the experience of maltreatment normalizes epigenetic activity associated with maltreatment and alters behavioral trajectories. Administration of valproic acid (VPA) transiently lowered levels of global DNA methylation in the PFC, regardless of exposure to nurturing care or maltreatment. When VPA-exposed animals reached adulthood, they engaged in more adverse behaviors toward their offspring. These data provide further evidence linking epigenetic changes in the developing brain with effects on behavior.
- Item“I Think There's Only Two Fields for That”: Hospital Registrar Attitudes and Practices for Collecting Patient Gender Identity Data(Transgender Health, 2022-04-22) Mehta, Shivani; Waad, Alex; Brooks, Madeline; Siegel, Scott D.Purpose: This study aimed to understand the experiences of hospital registrars in collecting gender identity data. Methods: A qualitative study that thematically analyzed key informant interviews with 37 registrars regarding their attitudes and practices in collecting gender identity data. Results: Collection of gender identity is influenced by (1) system-level barriers, (2) discrepancies in source of truth for documentation, and (3) registrars' underlying attitudes and behaviors. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate that person- and system-level barriers can interfere with the accurate and respectful collection of gender identity data, which is critical for tracking and addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer health disparities.
- ItemSexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents' disordered eating: Exploring general and SGM-specific factors(International Journal of Eating Disorders, 2022-05-09) Roberts, Savannah R.; Maheux, Anne J.; Watson, Ryan J.; Puhl, Rebecca M.; Choukas-Bradley, SophiaObjective: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents disproportionately report disordered eating, yet have primarily been considered under a larger SGM umbrella. The current study 1) compared disordered eating between sexual minority (SM) and gender minority (GM) adolescents; 2) examined how general psychological factors (self-esteem, depression, and stress) and SGM-specific factors (e.g., feelings about SGM identity, access to SGM resources) were associated with disordered eating; and 3) examined whether associations between these factors differed for SM versus GM adolescents. Method: SGM adolescents in the U.S. (N = 8814; 35.0% GM; 43.7% cisgender girls; 66.9% White; Mage = 15.6) reported their disordered eating, depressive symptoms, stress, self-esteem, and SGM-related experiences on an anonymous, cross-sectional online survey. Results: GM adolescents exhibited a higher prevalence of clinical threshold disordered eating than SM adolescents. Self-esteem was associated with lower odds of caloric restriction, purging, and binge eating. Depression was associated with higher odds of caloric restriction, diet pill use, purging, laxatives, and binge eating. Stress was associated with higher odds of purging. Associations were stronger for GM adolescents' caloric restriction. Positive feelings about SGM identity were associated with lower odds of caloric restriction, purging, and binge eating, whereas greater stress of “coming out” was associated with higher odds of caloric restriction, purging, and binge eating. Discussion: These results suggest that SGM adolescents' disordered eating is associated with both general psychological factors and unique SGM experiences. Results highlight the importance of considering how the unique experiences of SGM youth may leave them vulnerable to disordered eating behaviors. Public Significance Statement: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are disproportionately affected by disordered eating. The current study found that higher depression and stress, and lower self-esteem, were associated with SGM adolescents' disordered eating. Furthermore, unique SGM experiences, such as stress about coming out, were also associated with eating pathology. Results highlight the importance of considering SGM adolescents' perceptions of their identity and social support.
- ItemEffects of an attachment-based intervention on autonomic regulation among opioid-exposed infants(Developmental Psychobiology, 2022-06-02) Tabachnick, Alexandra R.; Eiden, Rina Das; Labella, Madelyn H.; Dozier, MaryLittle is known about whether postnatal intervention enhances autonomic regulation among infants at risk for dysregulation due to prenatal opioid exposure. The present study evaluated the effects of modified Attachment Behavioral Catch-up (mABC) on autonomic regulation for opioid-exposed infants in a pilot randomized clinical trial. We hypothesized that, compared to a control intervention (modified Developmental Education for Families [mDEF]), mABC would be associated with higher resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP) as well as greater reactivity to and recovery from a social stressor (Still-Face Paradigm). Pregnant or peripartum women receiving opioid agonist therapy (61 mothers of 64 infants; final N = 36 infants) were randomly assigned to mABC or mDEF, 12-session home visiting programs beginning in the third trimester; mABC targets sensitive parenting, and mDEF targets cognitive and motor development. mABC was associated with significantly greater RSA reactivity and marginally greater PEP reactivity. In models accommodating missing data, mABC was additionally associated with significantly greater RSA recovery. In sensitivity analyses removing siblings, mABC predicted significantly enhanced PEP reactivity. Overall, in these preliminary analyses, mABC was associated with healthier autonomic regulation during a social stressor than mDEF. Thus, mABC may be a promising strategy to promote autonomic regulation among opioid-exposed infants through parenting intervention.
- ItemUsing single cases to understand visual processing: The magnocellular pathway(Cognitive Neuropsychology, 2022-06-08) Medina, JaredVannuscorps et al. (2021b) report on an individual (Davida) with a developmental deficit who consistently perceived stimuli as rotated around and/or mirrored across the object’s primary axes. Interestingly, Davida was unimpaired under a variety of conditions. Her ability to judge stimulus orientation was excellent when using touch without vision, for three-dimensional objects, and for two-dimensional objects that were blurred, low contrast, moving, or flickered. Her errors instead occurred for two-dimensional stimuli that were sharp, high contrast, stationary and sustained. This pattern is consistent with proposals suggesting a distinction between two visual pathways, a magnocellular pathway (M-pathway or transient system) specialized for brief, moving, low contrast stimuli, and a parvocellular pathway (P-pathway or sustained system) specialized for stationary, high spatial frequency stimuli.
- ItemThe structural brain network topology of episodic memory(PLoS ONE, 2022-06-24) Matyi, Melanie A.; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.Episodic memory is supported by a distributed network of brain regions, and this complex network of regions does not operate in isolation. To date, neuroscience research in this area has typically focused on the activation levels in specific regions or pairwise connectivity between such regions. However, research has yet to investigate how the complex interactions of structural brain networks influence episodic memory abilities. We applied graph theory methods to diffusion-based anatomical networks in order to examine the structural architecture of the medial temporal lobe needed to support effective episodic memory functioning. We examined the relationship between performance on tests of verbal and non-verbal episodic memory with node strength, which indexes how well connected a brain region is in the network. Findings mapped onto the Posterior Medial memory system, subserved by the parahippocampal cortex and overlapped with findings of previous studies of episodic memory employing different methodologies. This expands our current understanding by providing independent evidence for the importance of identified regions and suggesting the particular manner in which these regions support episodic memory.
- ItemClarifying the synergistic effects of emotion dysregulation and inhibitory control on physical aggression(Human Brain Mapping, 2022-07-15) Bounoua, Nadia; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Sadeh, NaomiRising rates of violence underscore the need to better understand how systems that regulate distress and impulse control jointly modulate aggression risk. The goals of the current study were to investigate the unique and interactive effects of emotional dysregulation and inhibitory control on the perpetration of physical aggression. We recruited a high-risk community sample of 206 adults (M/SDage = 33.55/10.89 years old; 47.1% female) who reported a range of physically aggressive behaviors. All participants completed a self-report measure (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale), neuropsychological testing (Color Word Interference Test), and clinical interviewing (Lifetime History of Aggression Interview), and a subset of individuals (n = 134) underwent a neuroanatomical scan. As expected, the interplay of emotional and inhibitory control explained unique variance in physical aggression above and beyond their main effects. The positive association between emotion dysregulation and aggression strengthened as inhibitory control decreased. Cortical thickness in two right prefrontal clusters, one that peaked in the superior frontal gyrus and one that peaked in the caudal middle frontal gyrus, was also associated with the interactive effects of emotional dysregulation and inhibitory control. Notably, thickness in the superior frontal gyrus mediated the association between emotion dysregulation and physical aggression at low levels of inhibitory control. Using a multilevel and multimethod approach, the present study revealed neuroanatomical correlates of emotion–cognition interactions that have translational relevance to violence perpetration. These findings extend previous work primarily focused on functional-based neural assessments and point to the utility of examining neuroanatomical correlates of emotion–cognition interactions for understanding human aggression.
- ItemConcordance in caregiver and child sleep health metrics among families experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage: A pilot study(Journal of Applied Research on Children, 2022-08-25) Covington, Lauren; Satti, Aditi; Brewer, Benjamin; Blair, Rachel; Duffy, Ilona; Laurenceau, Jean-Phillipe; Mayberry, Shannon; Cordova, Angeni; Hoopes, Elissa; Patterson, FredaPurpose: Child and caregiver sleep occurs in a family system, with socioeconomically disadvantaged families experiencing disproportionately worse sleep health than more advantaged families. The extent to which objectively measured sleep health metrics (i.e., sleep duration, midpoint, regularity, efficiency) are concordant within disadvantaged family systems, including caregiver-child dyads, is not clear. To address this gap, this study aimed to: (1) characterize sleep health metrics and (2) identify levels of sleep health concordance among caregiver-child dyads living in families experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage. Design and methods: We enrolled 20 caregivers and 26 children in this micro-longitudinal study. Eligible primary caregivers slept in the same house as the child ≥4 nights/week and had no sleep disorders. Eligible children were aged 6-14 years and reported no medical problems. Dyads wore an actigraphy device continuously for 14 consecutive days. Sleep duration, bedtime, midpoint, and efficiency were estimated, and concordance evaluated using linear mixed modeling (R v.3.5.2). Results: Most caregivers were female (85%), Non-Hispanic Black (80%), and aged 40.45 years (SD=11.82). On average, caregivers were not meeting national recommendations for sleep duration and efficiency. Similarly, sleep duration recommendations were not met by child participants. Bivariate results showed that bedtime 𝑟=0.19, p<.001), sleep efficiency (𝑟=0.24, p<.001), and sleep midpoint (𝑟=0.39, p<.001), were concordant between child and caregiver. Multivariable models showed that caregiver bedtime was predictive of child sleep midpoint (b=0.16, p<.05), and caregiver sleep midpoint was predictive of child bedtime (b=0.29, p<.01) and child sleep midpoint (b=0.31, p<.001). Conclusion: Objectively estimated caregiver sleep may be connected to the sleep timing of their children. Improving child sleep may require addressing caregiver sleep habits too. Practice Implications: Results highlight the importance of providers considering caregiver sleep health when assessing child sleep health during well child visits. KEY TAKE AWAY POINTS: In this sample of caregiver-child dyads living in families experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage, on average, caregivers were not meeting national recommendations for sleep duration (7-9 hours per night) and sleep efficiency (>85%), and children were not obtaining 9-11 hours of sleep per night. Bedtime, sleep efficiency, and sleep midpoint were significantly concordant in caregivers and children, with the strongest association observed with sleep midpoint. In multivariable models, caregiver bedtime predicted child sleep midpoint, and caregiver midpoint predicted child bedtime and midpoint; highlighting the necessity of addressing poor sleep health at the family versus individual level among families experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage.
- ItemIndividual differences and dyadic processes in conversations with peers in middle childhood(Social Development, 2022-09-01) Moore, Christina C.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Bookhout, Megan K.; Zajac, Lindsay; Dozier, MaryThe goal of the current study was to investigate the contribution of both trait-like individual differences and dyadic processes to the content of children's conversations. Fifty-two groups typically consisting of four same-sex unfamiliar nine-year-old children (N = 202) interacted in all possible dyads, resulting in six dyads per group. Each dyad completed a 5-min frustration task and a 5-min planning task. Observers coded children's verbalizations into 10 categories and further summed these categories into prosocial (suggest, agree, solicit input, ask, encourage, state personal) and antisocial (command, disagree, discourage, aggress) verbalizations, resulting in 24 variables (12 per task). Across both tasks, Social Relations Model analyses provided evidence of the role of both individual differences [significant effects for actor variance (15 of 24 variables), actor-actor correlations, and intrapersonal correlations] and dyadic processes [significant effects for partner variance (4 of 24 variables), relationship variance (18 of 24 variables), dyadic reciprocity correlations (10 of 24 variables), and interpersonal correlations] in children's conversations with peers.