Browsing Open Access Publications by Subject "arsenic"
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ItemEvaluation of quantitative synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence in rice grain(Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 2023-03-15) Limmer, Matt A.; Webb, Samuel M.; Seyffertha, Angelia L.Concentrations of nutrients and contaminants in rice grain affect human health, specifically through the localization and chemical form of elements. Methods to spatially quantify the concentration and speciation of elements are needed to protect human health and characterize elemental homeostasis in plants. Here, an evaluation was carried out using quantitative synchrotron radiation microprobe X-ray fluorescence (SR-µXRF) imaging by comparing average rice grain concentrations of As, Cu, K, Mn, P, S and Zn measured with rice grain concentrations from acid digestion and ICP-MS analysis for 50 grain samples. Better agreement was found between the two methods for high-Z elements. Regression fits between the two methods allowed quantitative concentration maps of the measured elements. These maps revealed that most elements were concentrated in the bran, although S and Zn permeated into the endosperm. Arsenic was highest in the ovular vascular trace (OVT), with concentrations approaching 100 mg kg−1 in the OVT of a grain from a rice plant grown in As-contaminated soil. Quantitative SR-µXRF is a useful approach for comparison across multiple studies but requires careful consideration of sample preparation and beamline characteristics. ItemHydrologic Control on Arsenic Cycling at the Groundwater–Surface Water Interface of a Tidal Channel(Environmental Science and Technology, 2023-01-10) Yu, Xuan; LeMonte, Joshua J.; Li, Junxia; Stuckey, Jason W.; Sparks, Donald L.; Cargill, John G.; Russoniello, Christopher J.; Michael, Holly A.Historical industrial activities have resulted in soil contamination at sites globally. Many of these sites are located along coastlines, making them vulnerable to hydrologic and biogeochemical alterations due to climate change and sea-level rise. However, the impact of hydrologic dynamics on contaminant mobility in tidal environments has not been well studied. Here, we collected data from pressure transducers in wells, multi-level redox sensors, and porewater samplers at an As-contaminated site adjacent to a freshwater tidal channel. Results indicate that sharp redox gradients exist and that redox conditions vary on tidal to seasonal timescales due to sub-daily water level fluctuations in the channel and seasonal groundwater–surface water interactions. The As and Fe2+ concentrations decreased during seasonal periods of net discharge to the channel. The seasonal changes were greater than tidal variations in both Eh and As concentrations, indicating that impacts of the seasonal mechanism are stronger than those of sub-daily water table fluctuations. A conceptual model describing tidal and seasonal hydro-biogeochemical coupling is presented. These findings have broad implications for understanding the impacts of sea-level rise on the mobility of natural and anthropogenic coastal solutes. ItemRice husk and charred husk amendments increase porewater and plant Si but water management determines grain As and Cd concentration(Plant and Soil, 2022-03-09) Linam, Franklin; Limmer, Matt A.; Tappero, Ryan; Seyfferth, Angelia L.Purpose Rice is a staple crop worldwide and a silicon (Si) hyperaccumulator with Si levels reaching 5–10% of its mass; this can result in desilication and Si-deficiency if plant residues are not managed correctly. Rice is also uniquely subject to arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) contamination depending on soil conditions. Our goal is to quantify the effects of rice husk (a Si-rich milling byproduct) amendments and different water management strategies on rice uptake of Si, As, and Cd. Methods We employed 4 husk amendment treatments: Control (no husk), Husk (untreated husk), Biochar (husk pyrolyzed at 450 °C), and CharSil (husk combusted at > 1000 °C). Each of these amendments was studied under nonflooded, alternate wetting and drying (AWD), and flooded water management in a pot study. Porewater chemistry and mature plant elemental composition were measured. Results Husk and Biochar treatments, along with flooding, increased porewater and plant Si. Vegetative tissue As decreased with increasing porewater Si, but grain As and plant Cd were primarily controlled by water management. Grain As and Cd were inversely correlated and are simultaneously minimized in a redox potential (Eh) range of 225–275 mV in the studied soil. Ferrihydrite in root iron plaque decreased As translocation from porewater to grain, but amendments were not able to increase plaque ferrihydrite content. Conclusion We conclude moderate husk amendment rates (i.e., 4 years’ worth) with minimal pretreatment strongly increases rice Si content but may not be sufficient to decrease grain As in low Si and As soil.