Open Access Publications

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Open access publications by faculty, postdocs, and graduate students in the College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment.


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Now showing 1 - 5 of 6
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    Effects of nitrate and ammonium on assimilation of nitric oxide by Heterosigma akashiwo
    (Scientific Reports, 2023-01-12) Healey, Emily M.; Flood, Stacie; Bock, Patience K.; Fulweiler, Robinson W.; York, Joanna K.; Coyne, Kathryn J.
    The harmful alga Heterosigma akashiwo possesses a hybrid nitrate reductase (NR) enzyme, NR2-2/2HbN, which has the potential to convert NO to nitrate for assimilation into biomass. In previous research, NR transcription in H. akashiwo was induced by nitrate while NR activity was inhibited by ammonium. Here, the capacity of H. akashiwo to use NO in the presence of nitrate and/or ammonium was investigated to understand the regulation of NO assimilation. Continuous cultures of H. akashiwo were acclimated to growth on nitrate, ammonium, or a mixture of both. Aliquots from these cultures were spiked with 15N-labeled NO. The expression of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation was evaluated, as well as nitrate reductase activity and assimilation of 15N-labeled nitrogen into algal biomass. Results showed that NO induced expression and activity of NR, and upregulated expression of GOGAT regardless of the presence of other inorganic nitrogen sources, while GS expression decreased over time. Furthermore, 15NO uptake and assimilation was significantly higher in cultures acclimated for growth on ammonium compared to cultures acclimated for growth on nitrate alone. Assimilation of NO may provide H. akashiwo with a competitive advantage in N-poor environments or areas with elevated NO.
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    Block-structured, equal-workload, multi-grid-nesting interface for the Boussinesq wave model FUNWAVE-TVD (Total Variation Diminishing)
    (Geoscientific Model Development, 2022-07-18) Choi, Young-Kwang; Shi, Fengyan; Malej, Matt; Smith, Jane M.; Kirby, James T.; Grilli, Stephan T.
    We describe the development of a block-structured, equal-CPU-load (central processing unit), multi-grid-nesting interface for the Boussinesq wave model FUNWAVE-TVD (Fully Nonlinear Boussinesq Wave Model with Total Variation Diminishing Solver). The new model framework does not interfere with the core solver, and thus the core program, FUNWAVE-TVD, is still a standalone model used for a single grid. The nesting interface manages the time sequencing and two-way nesting processes between the parent grid and child grid with grid refinement in a hierarchical manner. Workload balance in the MPI-based (message passing interface) parallelization is handled by an equal-load scheme. A strategy of shared array allocation is applied for data management that allows for a large number of nested grids without creating additional memory allocations. Four model tests are conducted to verify the nesting algorithm with assessments of model accuracy and the robustness in the application in modeling transoceanic tsunamis and coastal effects.
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    Surface impacts of large offshore wind farms
    (Environmental Research Letters, 2022-05-25) Golbazi, Maryam; Archer, Cristina L.; Alessandrini, Stefano
    Future offshore wind farms around the world will be built with wind turbines of size and capacity never seen before (with diameter and hub height exceeding 150 and 100 m, respectively, and rated power exceeding 10 MW). Their potential impacts at the surface have not yet been studied. Here we conduct high-resolution numerical simulations using a mesoscale model with a wind farm parameterization and compare scenarios with and without offshore wind farms equipped with these 'extreme-scale' wind turbines. Wind speed, turbulence, friction velocity, and sensible heat fluxes are slightly reduced at the surface, like with conventional wind turbines. But, while the warming found below the rotor in stable atmospheric conditions extends to the surface with conventional wind turbines, with extreme-scale ones it does not reach the surface, where instead minimal cooling is found. Overall, the surface meteorological impacts of large offshore wind farms equipped with extreme-scale turbines are statistically significant but negligible in magnitude.
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    Population Dynamics of Common Nearshore Forage Fishes in the Delaware Inland Bays, USA
    (Estuaries and Coasts, 2022-03-13) McGowan, Andrew T.; Hale, Edward A.; Bartow, Dennis H.; Greco, Michael
    In the Mid-Atlantic, four species of forage fish, Menidia menidia (Atlantic Silverside), Fundulus heteroclitus (Mummichog), Fundulus majalis (Striped Killifish), and Cyprinodon variegatus (Sheepshead Minnow), account for a large proportion of fish abundance in estuarine environments and are important food sources for state and federally managed predatory species. The population dynamics of these species are poorly understood, and factors affecting their populations are largely unclear or unknown. Seine samples were collected in the Delaware Inland Bays over 9 years (2011–2019), with indices and trends in abundance, as well as climatic and biotic drivers of population changes investigated at both combined estuary and individual bay scales. Average interannual decreases in abundance for all four species at the combined estuary scale ranged between 31.9 and 69.2%, while increases ranged between 65.9 and 178.6%, indicating the extreme variability these species show between years. Standardized models of abundance demonstrated long-term declines in abundance for Mummichog and Sheepshead Minnow at both the combined estuary and individual bay scales. Spring discharge affected Mummichog and Sheepshead Minnow abundance, and Sheepshead Minnow showed a strong negative correlation with Summer Flounder abundance. These data quantify the variability in abundance for an important portion of the forage base in Mid-Atlantic estuaries and should be considered as fisheries management shifts away from single-species approaches and recognizes the forage needs of managed species. Results indicate that even commonly encountered species can consistently vary through time and emphasize the need to examine other important but poorly studied forage species.
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    Marshaling ports required to meet US policy targets for offshore wind power
    (Energy Policy, 2022-02-16) Parkison, Sara B.; Kempton, Willett
    We analyze infrastructure needed for offshore wind power targets set by U.S. state and federal policies—specifically, manufacturing, vessels, and offshore wind ports. By examining cost-competitive turbine and project sizes and infrastructure challenges, we identify marshaling ports as a key bottleneck. Through elicitation of requirements from supply chain, port, and vessel experts, we identify the necessary attributes for marshaling ports and calculate the area needed to meet policy targets. US marshaling ports are currently insufficient to meet either state or federal power targets. We calculate state commitments from state contracts and policies: in sum, 40 GW by 2040. Federal targets from the Biden Administration are 30 GW by 2030 and 110 GW by 2050. Either target yields more demand for marshaling area than is currently available or planned. The shortage of marshaling area supply has incorrectly been attributed to lack of suitable U.S. locations. Instead, we attribute it to developers having built ports to support early, smaller projects, and having located them to incentivize state power contracts rather than developing ports for long-term, large-scale, and economically-efficient use. Additional land suitable for marshaling ports exists, but it requires commitment from port authorities and port investors to develop it for this purpose.
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