Transit-oriented development policy analysis in Washington D.C., Metropolitan Area based on case study at three transit nodes
University of Delaware, School of Public Policy and Administration
Transit-oriented development (TOD) concept has been a popular planning strategy to reduce car-dependency because it encourages public transit, walking, and bicycling in mixed-use activity nodes around transit stations. There is research that indicates TOD implementation can bring important benefits to specific transit nodes, regions with public transit connection and persons living or working in the region. Through exploring TOD institutional environment and three case studied nodes in Washington D.C., metropolitan area, this study provides detailed evidence and analysis on TOD of dynamics which has received limited attention in the previous research. This study shows that TOD strategy can be implemented in areas having different socio-economic and cultural characteristics. The work contributes to general understanding of TOD in relation to how TOD planning can vary in different transit station areas due to deliberate design by the local governments involved. The institutional environment within which TOD policies and strategies can be adopted and carried out in major metropolitan areas is normally quite complex. Local governments and transit agency work together with other government agencies, private sector firms, quasi-public agency and community groups to develop the land at stations and immediately adjacent areas. On the basis of the findings, a framework is constructed which shows the actors and their dynamics in planning and managing individual station nodes. The conceptual frame created by this study can be used and expanded for further research on station development and design policies.