Dietary quality, reporting accuracy, and temporal eating patterns among low-income, Hispanic mothers

Takayama, Kyle
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University of Delaware
Background: According to the 2010 United States (US) Census, the Hispanic population now accounts for one of every six people living in the US, and this proportion is expected to reach one in four by the year 2050. As the Hispanic population continues to increase, so does its impact on the overall health status of the US as a whole. Epidemiologic studies have revealed inter-ethnic disparities in health outcomes experienced by the Hispanic population such as increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes. A detailed analysis of health and nutrition behaviors such as dietary quality, temporal eating patterns, and reporting accuracy may lead to a greater understanding of these disparities, and provide a foundation for the development of strategies for the prevention and management of health outcomes associated with these disparities. Aims: The primary aim of this study is to describe the nutrient intake and diet quality among Hispanic women of child bearing age. The secondary aim is to assess the temporal distribution of food intake. These aims will be conducted with consideration for the accuracy of reported energy intake within the population. Methods: As part of an ongoing, longitudinal study of Hispanic mothers and their children, anthropometric data, demographic, health behavior, physical activity and viii dietary data (one 24-hour dietary recall) has been collected. Participant data collection has been facilitated by bilingual research assistants. Descriptive statistics will be used to summarize nutrient intake and Healthy Eating Index scores will be used to assess diet quality. Temporal eating patterns will be summarized using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Goldberg method will be used to determine the accuracy of reported energy intake. Results: Comparison of micronutrient intake to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for women between the ages of 18-50 suggests the Hispanic women in this population may have suboptimal intake of vitamin D and E. Further, the mean Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score in this population (47.1 ± 12.2) indicates poor adherence to federal dietary guidelines. A one-way ANOVA to assess percent daily energy and percent daily macronutrient intake showed a significant difference in kcal (p < 0.01), carbohydrate (p < 0.01), protein (p = 0.02), and fat (p < 0.01) across three time intervals. No significant difference in percent energy intake in the morning (p = 0.92), afternoon (p = 0.88), and evening (p = 0.65) was observed across body mass index (BMI) categories. Similarly, no significant difference in percent energy intake at T1 (p = 0.47), T2 (p = 0.78), and T3 (p = 0.80) with respect to reporting accuracy was observed. Conclusion: Nutrition education should focus on improving overall adherence to federal dietary guidelines, with an emphasis on increasing the intake of whole grains, oils, and foods low in sodium. More evidence is needed to determine the influence of meal size during the various time intervals on overall energy and macronutrient intake.