Biological Field And Laboratory Methods For Measuring The Quality Of Surface Waters And Effluents
The role of aquatic biology in the water pollution control program of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency includes field and laboratory studies carried out to establish water quality criteria for the recognized beneficial uses of water resources and to monitor water quality. Field studies are employed to: measure the toxicity of specific pollutants or effluents to individual species or communities of aquatic organisms under natural conditions; detect violations of water quality standards ; evaluate the trophic status of waters ; and determine long-term trends in water quality. Laboratory studies are employed to : measure the effects of known or potentially deleterious substances on aquatic organisms to estimate “safe” concentrations ; and determine environmental requirements (such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, etc.) of the more important and sensitive species of aquatic organisms. Field surveys and water quality monitoring are conducted principally by the regional surveillance and analysis and national enforcement programs. Laboratory studies of water quality requirements, toxicity testing, and methods development are conducted principally by the national research programs.
Biological Field , Laboratory Methods , Surface Waters , Effluents