Association between dietary sodium intake and bone mineral density in an urban population of African Americans

Rombach, Jessica
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University of Delaware
Osteoporosis is a public health concern due to the increasing number of adults over age 65 years, particularly among under screened urban, minority populations. High amounts of dietary sodium intake have been associated with a decrease in bone mineral density, but the results have been mixed, largely cross-sectional, and mostly examined in postmenopausal Caucasian women. The objective of this thesis was to examine the relationship between mean dietary sodium and calcium intakes and the change in bone mineral density from a sample of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span study prospective cohort between baseline (2004-2009) and wave 3 (first follow-up examination, 2009-2011) data collections. Nutrient intakes were estimated using two 24-hour dietary recalls collected using the Automated Multiple Pass Method, and bone mineral density was measured using duel energy x-ray absorptiometry at the total hip and lumbar spine. Data were analyzed using mixed models stratified by sex (SAS version 9.2). There was a significant inverse association between dietary sodium and bone mineral density of African American women at the hip site (-0.00002, P<0.05). However, the absolute bone density lost at the hip site of African American women between baseline and wave 3 (first follow-up examination) was not significant. Further research is needed using more than two data collection time points and a larger sample of the cohort to enhance the modeling of dietary sodium intake and its effect on bone mineral density.
Bone density , Dietary sodium , Dietary calcium , Urban African American