People's Reactions To Emergency Warnings
Quarantelli, E. L.
In this paper we primarily summarize and highlight the major findings regarding reactions of human beings to disaster warnings of an immediate event. Response in this approach is viewed more narrowly as the adjustive behavioral outcome of the reaction pattern. Reaction is the broader set of activities involved in exposure to and use of disseminated warning messages, as well as other observations regarding a dangerous situation. Our focus is on individual reactions to relatively short-term warnings as might be issued in a sudden emergency generated by a flood from a dam collapse or sudden river rising, hurricane-typhoon and cyclone, tsunamis or so called tidal wave, transportation accident involving fire or explosion of dangerous chemicals, or a major technological accident in a nuclear plant. We do not concern ourselves with longer term messages which might warn about slowly developing disasters such as might be involved in famines, droughts, most epidemics, diffuse toxic poisonings, or even long range earthquake predictions. More than logic is involved in distinguishing between warnings in short run and long run situations. Empirically, research studies show there are some qualitative differences in how people react to warnings in the two kinds of situations (e.g., warnings are less recognized, believed, and responded to In the long run situations.
Perceptions , Emergency warnings , Reactions , Warning Messages , Mass Media , Evacuation