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ItemA Preliminary Report On Nitrate Contamination Of Shallow Ground Waters In Delaware(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1971-10) Miller, J.C.Inspection of water analyses on file at the Delaware Geological Survey revealed that 25 percent of the shallow wells yield water with nitrate concentrations approaching or in excess of the Delaware State Board of Health and U. S. Public Health Service limit of 45 parts per million (ppm). Nitrate concentrations greater than 45 ppm seem to be detrimental to the health of infants during their first few months of life; adults drinking the same water are not affected but breast-fed infants of mothers drinking such water may become ill. The illness ("blue baby sickness" or methemoglobinemia) results from the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by nitrite-forming bacteria in the upper part of the digestive tract of some infants and the further conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin which is incapable of transporting oxygen; the result is oxygen starvation. Little is known about the low level effect of undetected methemoglobinemia on infants. ItemPreliminary Report On Seismic Events In Northern Delaware(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1972-04) Jordan, R.R.; Pickett, T.E.; Woodruff, K.D.Earthquakes are an unfamiliar phenomenon in Delaware. Because of the great public and scientific interest in the seismic events that have recently affected northern Delaware, this Open File Report has been prepared to present currently available information concerning the earthquakes and the investigation pursued by the Delaware Geological Survey. This is not a final scientific explanation of the events. To many persons it is shocking to realize that the earth that they regard as stable is, in fact, an active body. The present earth is a product of 4.5 billion years of history, during which time most geologic forces have acted so slowly as to be almost imperceptible. Therefore, sudden movements are disturbing. Earthquakes are the vibrations caused by relatively sudden slippage of deeply buried rocks. Earthquakes occur in a vast range of sizes; many are too small to be felt and others cause great damage. The events in Delaware that are described on these pages were relatively small and, although they warrant further study, which may lead to some precautionary measures, they do not represent cause for alarm. ItemPreliminary Report On The Earthquake Of February 28, 1973(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1973-04) Woodruff, K.D.; Jordan, R.R.; Pickett, T.E.This report has been prepared to fill an immediate need for information on the earthquake that affected northern Delaware on February 28, 1973. Public interest in seismic events has grown in the past two years because of a series of small, local events (Jordan et al., 1972) and has been heightened considerably by the event described in this report. Various stresses on and within the earth lead to periodic adjustments or changes by the rocks making up the earth's crust. Many changes are too slow or small to be measured within a human lifetime, but earthquakes can be a very perceptible phenomenon, expressing more rapid adjustment. Indeed, earthquakes in many areas of the world are a serious geologic hazard and a threat to life and property. Thus, it must be recognized that the earth is a dynamic body and its processes are not bound to the convenience of man. ItemPapers Presented By Staff Members Of The Delaware Geological Survey At The Baltimore Meeting Of The Northeastern Section Of The Geological Society Of America, March, 1974(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1974-05) Pickett, T.E.This report is a compilation of four papers presented by DGS staff members at the Baltimore Meeting of the Northeastern Section of the Geological Society of America, March, 1974. ItemGeologic Cross-Sections, Cenozoic Sediments of the Delmarva Peninsula and Adjacent Area(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1975) Spoljaric, N. ItemRemoval Of Metallic Contaminants From Industrial Waste Waters By The Use Of Greensands, A Preliminary Report(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1975-01) Spoljaric, N.; Crawford, W.A.The Delaware Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Mines, has investigated glauconite-bearing greensand deposits in Delaware for several years. The purpose of this effort is to find possible practical uses for this potentially important mineral resource. This report briefly describes the preliminary results of one phase of the study: application of greensands to the purification of industrial waste waters. ItemReview Of The Subsurface Geology And Resource Potential Of Southern Delaware(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1976-04) Benson, R.N.This review summarizes the present knowledge of the subsurface geology and resource potential of southern Delaware and outlines the needs for future studies to gain further understanding of these matters. Because of the present interest in exploring for oil and gas beneath the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf it is most timely that the primary resource considered in this report be the hydrocarbon (petroleum and natural gas) potential of the State. Hydrocarbons occur in commercial quantities only in thick sections of sedimentary rock, therefore, southern Delaware (primarily Sussex County) is the focus of this study because the thickest sedimentary rock section in the State is here. Assessment of the hydrocarbon potential of this area also has bearing on other resources such as groundwater (both fresh water and subsurface brines), underground storage of natural gas, and underground waste disposal. ItemGuidebook: Columbia Deposits Of Delaware(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1976-05) Jordan, R.R.; Talley, J.H.The Columbia sediments of Delaware cover almost all of the surface of the Coastal Plain portion of the State. A major unconformity separates these predominantly sandy materials from the underlying rocks of the Coastal Plain. As it includes the materials closest to the surface in most places, the Columbia has great practical importance in Delaware. In addition to the morphology and soils which are largely dictated by the Columbia, it holds about 90 percent of the State's groundwater supplies, is the geologic foundation for most construction, and yields essentially all of the sand and gravel mined here. ItemGeologic Field Trips In Delaware(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1977-05) Benson, R.N.; Hahn, W.F.; Jordan, R.R.; Pickett, T.E.; Talley, J.H.; Thompson, A.M.; Woodruff, K.D.The information contained in this Guidebook was compiled on the occasion of the Annual Meeting of the Association of American State Geologists held in Delaware in June 1977. The Delaware Geological Survey is pleased to have been selected to host this national meeting. The field trip logs were designed to familiarize geologists from across the United States with basic features of Delaware's geology and resources. We have also sought to identify some points of historical and cultural interest that may help the visitor become familiar with our State. Experience has shown that field guides retain their usefulness beyond the event that they initially served. They may assist classes, other groups, and individuals seeking additional information about their physical environment. Therefore, this Guidebook has been published as an Open File Report for public distribution. All users of this information are urged to exercise caution, especially at rock faces and along waterways, and to obtain specific permission for visits from landowners where necessary. ItemPreliminary Results Of Seismic And Magnetic Surveys Off Delaware's Coast(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1977-07) Woodruff, K.D.The nature and occurrence of subsurface resources, whether ground water, minerals, or petroleum, are controlled by the geologic history and framework of any particular area. Several years ago the staff of the Delaware Geological Survey began an informal assessment of the potential resources of southern Delaware and demonstrated the lack of basic data on the deep subsurface in this area. This assessment was later summarized by Benson (1976) with particular emphasis on the possibilities for petroleum occurrence. ItemLandsat View of Delaware(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1979) Spoljaric, N.In Delaware some linear features recognized on the Landsat image can be related to known faults. Others are interpreted as possible faults; the causes of some lineations are not yet known. Circular features are more difficult to interpret but they are similar to the domal structures and erosional features recognized in the Gulf Coast region, for example. These and the linear features of uncertain origin can be investigated by drilling and geophysical techniques after being localized by clues provided by the satellite images. Detection by satellite images and confirmation by other geologic techniques is an efficient and effective means of geologic investigation. ItemEffects Of Earthquakes And Earth Tides On Water Levels In Selected Wells In The Piedmont Of Delaware(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1980-02) Talley, J.H.Examination of continuous water-level hydrographs from two artesian observation wells in the Piedmont near Newark, Delaware reveals water-level fluctuations caused by earthquakes and by earth tides. The effects of 14 distant earthquakes with MS (surface wave) magnitudes between 6.7 and 8.0 and MB (body wave) magnitudes between 5.9 and 7.0 (National Earthquake Information Service, 1975-1977) have been recorded over a two-year and ten-month period. ItemDelaware's Extractive Mineral Industry(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1981-01) Doyle, R.G.; Pickett, T.E.The purpose of this report is to provide information on the mining industry of Delaware as an essential component of a growing economy. The industry, particularly in sand and gravel mining, must deal with uneven regulation, land use competition, and environmental pressures. It is hoped that the information gathered here will assist planning and regulatory agencies as well as an interested general public in evaluating the role of the extractive mineral industry. ItemSinkholes, Hockessin Area, Delaware(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1981-03) Talley, J.H.Sinkholes are depressions in the land surface or holes in the ground caused by subsidence or collapse of surficial material into openings in soluble rock. Sinkholes usually develop in "karst" areas underlain by carbonate rocks. Karst is defined as "terrane with distinctive characteristics of relief and drainage arising primarily from a higher degree of rock solubility in natural waters than is found elsewhere" (Jennings, 1971, p.1). In addition to sinkholes, other features associated with karst are: caves, disappearing streams, and well-developed subsurface drainage systems. ItemGeologic Aspects Of Disposal Of Highly Radioactive Nuclear Waste(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1981-05) Spoljaric, N.This report was prepared to provide a simple but comprehensive overview of programs and concepts of highly radioactive waste disposal. This report is not based on original research, but was prepared from data and information reported in voluminous publications of the U.S. Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey. ItemRegolith Thickness of the Delaware Piedmont(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1982) Christopher, M.J.; Woodruff, K.D.This map shows the total thickness (regolith) of both the loose, transported material and the weathered rock that overlies crystalline rocks of the Delaware Piedmont. Transported material is generally thin and the weathered rock in place (saprolite) usually makes up the bulk of the regolith. Saprolite may vary gradationally from a weathered rock that has retained much of the characteristics of the parent rock to a product mineralogically and texturally different from its source rock. ItemA Guide To Information On Benchmarks In Delaware(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1982-03) Schenck, W.S.To conduct an elevation survey, a surveyor needs a starting point for which the exact elevation above mean sea level is known. These starting points are called benchmarks. State and federal agencies install benchmarks throughout every State, creating a network of elevation points which covers the entire continental United States. These benchmarks are considered to be permanent, and usually consist of a brass, bronze, or aluminum disc about 4 inches in diameter mounted in a cement post or in a drill hole in a permanent foundation. Each benchmark also has the installing agency's name and an identification number stamped into it. In December of 1980 the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) allotted the State of Delaware funds to determine the number and condition of federal benchmarks and other elevation reference control points. The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), contained within FEMA, requires accurate flood surveys of property in flood-prone areas. An extensive and accurate benchmark network throughout the State is needed to help meet these needs. ItemGeologic And Hydrologic Aspects Of Landfills(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1982-03) Spoljaric, N.; Talley, J.H.In the United States more than 3.5 billion tons of solid waste are generated annually. Of this, more than 2 billion tons are agricultural waste, such as manure and crop waste. Almost 300 million tons are generated by commercial and industrial activities and municipalities, and another 1.1 billion tons are attributed to various mining operations (Vaughan, 1969). Increasing amounts of solid waste have had detrimental effects on environmental quality. It has become necessary to reprocess and reuse some, and to provide safe and environmentally acceptable ways of disposing of the remaining waste in properly constructed landfills. Pollution brought about by improperly constructed landfills may be very severe. For example, the contaminants generated by the waste at the old, abandoned Army Creek Landfill, New Castle County, Delaware, were so widespread that the situation received national attention. General and sincere concern expressed by many citizens of our State has prompted the Delaware Geological Survey to prepare this report. The report explains the functioning of a landfill, problems improperly constructed landfills may cause, and the geologic and hydrologic aspects that have to be considered in selecting a suitable disposal site for solid waste. The report does not contain discussions of other important factors, such as social impact, transportation, and specific health hazards, that must also be considered. ItemA Numerical Indicator Of Water Conditions For Northern Delaware(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1982-05) Jordan, R.R.; Woodruff, K.D.Numerical indicators, or indices, are widely used to measure the status of complex relationships. As such, indices have become accepted by researchers and the public in such disparate fields as economics, air quality, and weather. In this paper we explore the formulation of an indicator of water conditions in northern Delaware, propose formulas that may be applicable, and test those proposals against long-term records of basic data. The need for a simple indicator of water supply conditions in Delaware, and especially in New Castle County, has become increasingly apparent. The Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) has applied an index to the Delaware River Basin, which includes a portion of Delaware. The Governor's Drought Advisory Committee has sought an objective means of determining when water supply conditions might warrant conservation measures. Discussions of the subject have also been held within the State Comprehensive Water Management Committee. We are pleased to acknowledge the constructive comments of these groups and of other colleagues with whom we have discussed this work. George R. Phillips of the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) was especially helpful in analyzing the practical implications of using the index presented in this paper. John R. Mather, Delaware State Climatologist, provided Palmer Drought Severity Index values with the cooperation of the National Weather Service. This report was reviewed by Richard N. Benson and John H. Talley of the Delaware Geological Survey (DGS). ItemSaturated Thickness of the Columbia Formation in Southern New Castle County, Delaware(Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, 1983) Groot, J.J.; Demicco, P.M.; Cherry, P.J.This map shows the saturated thickness of the Columbia Formation. The Columbia Formation covers most of the Coastal Plain of Delaware. Because it consists primarily of coarse sand, it is important to the hydrology of the area. It is an important groundwater reservoir and in most places water must pass through it to reach deeper units. The water budget of the Columbia Formation also influences runoff and baseflow components of streamflow. The saturated thickness was determined through interpretation of data in publications and files of the Delaware Geological Survey, United States Geological Survey, and the Water Resources Center of the University of Delaware. The thicknesses shown on the map represent the best judgment of the authors based on available data. Detailed investigations of specific sites will require additional data.